Rosenberg H, Clofine R, Bialik O. Neurologic changes during awakening from anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1981; 54: 125–30.
McCulloch PR, Milne B. Neurological phenomena during emergence from enflurane or isoflurane anaesthesia. Can J Anaesth 1990; 37: 739–42.
Moody EJ, Suzdak PD, Paul SM, Skolnick P. Modulation of the benzodiazepine/gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor chloride channel complex by inhalation anesthetics. J Neurochem 1988; 51: 1386–93.
Bishop BE, Laverty R. Dose-dependent reduction by Ro 15-4513 in mice of the effects of ethanol and some other general depressant drugs. Eur J Pharmacol 1989; 162:265–71.
Cheng SC, Brunner EA. A neurochemical hypothesis for halothane anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1975; 54: 242–6.
Cheng SC, Brunner EA. Effects of anesthetic agents on synaptosomal GABA disposal. Anesthesiology 1981; 55: 34–40.
Gage PW, Robertson B. Prolongation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents by pentobarbitone, halothane and ketamine in CA1 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampus. Br J Pharmacol 1985; 85: 675–81.
Jones MV, Brooks PA, Harrison NL. Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid-activated Cl currents in cultured rat hippocampal neurones by three volatile anaesthetics. J Physiol Lond 1992; 449: 279–93.
Geller E, Schiff B, Halpern P, Speiser Z, Cohen S. A benzodiazepine receptor antagonist improves emergence of mice from halothane anaesthesia. Neuropharmacology 1989; 28:271–4.
Weinger MB, Schreiber JE, Koob GE. Effects of two benzodiazepine inverse agonists, RO 15-4513 and FG 7142, on recovery from pentobarbital and halothane anesthesia in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1990; 35: 889–5.
Miller DW, Yourick DL, Tessel RE. Antagonism of methoxyflurane-induced anaesthesia in rats by benzodiazepine inverse agonists. Eur J Pharmacol 1989; 173: 1–10.
Moody EJ, Skolnick P. The imidazobenzodiazepine Ro 15-4513 antagonizes methoxyflurane anaesthesia. Life Sci 1988; 43: 1269–76.
Geller E, Weinbrum A, Schiff B, et al. The effect of flumazenil on the process of recovery from halothane anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1988; Suppl 2: 151–3.
Hunkeler W, Mohler H, Pieri L, et al. Selective antagonists of benzodiazepines. Nature 1981; 290: 514–6.
Weinbroum AA, Flaishon R, Sorkine P, Szold O, Rudick V. A risk-benefit assessment of flumazenil in the management of benzodiazepine overdose. Drug Saf 1997; 17: 181–96.
Weinbroum A, Halpern P, Geller E. The use of flumazenil in the management of acute drug poisoning—a review. Intensive Care Med 1991; 17 Suppl 1: S32–8.
Blanc VF, Haig M, Troli M, Sauve B. Computerized photo-plethysmography of the finger. Can J Anaesth 1993; 40: 271–8.
Sellgren J, Ponten J, Wallin BG. Percutaneous recording of muscle nerve sympathetic activity during propofol, nitrous oxide, and isoflurane anesthesia in humans. Anesthesiology 1990; 73: 20–7.
Ereye E, Eournell A. Postoperative reversal of loss of vigilance following midazolam with the use of the antagonist flumazenil (Ro 15-1788). A comparative study with a placebo and the use of EEG-power spectra (German). Anaesthesist 1988; 37: 162–6.
Gillespie NA. The signs of anaesthesia. Anesth Analg Curr Res 1943; 22: 275–80.
Karr AF. Probablility. New York: Springer-Verlag Publishers, 1993: 12–4.
Hudson RJ, Stanski DR, Burch PG. Pharmacokinetics of methohexital and thiopental in surgical patients. Anesthesiology 1983; 59: 215–9.
Woerlee GM. Practical IV bolus kinetics and dynamics.In: Woerlee GM (Ed.). Kinetics and Dynamics of Intravenous Anaesthetics. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992: 116–47.
Fassoulaki A, Sarantopoulos C, Papilas K. Flumazenil reduces the duration of thiopentone but not of propofol anaesthesia in humans. Can J Anaesth 1993; 40: 10–2.
Tanelian DL, Kosek P, Mody I, Maclver MB. The role of GABAA receptor / chloride channel complex in anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1993; 78: 757–76.
Zacny JP, Yajnik S, Coalson D, et al. Flumazenil may attenuate some subjective effects of nitrous oxide in humans: a preliminary report. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1995; 51: 815–9.
Quock RM, Wetzel PJ, Maillefer RH, Hodges BL, Curtis BA, Czech DA. Benzodiazepine receptor-mediated behavioral effects of nitrous oxide in the rat social interaction test. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1993; 46: 161–5.
Schwieger IM, Szlam F, Hug CC Jr. Absence of agonistic or antagonistic effect of flumazenil (Ro 15-1788) in dogs anesthetized with enflurane, isoflurane, or fentanyl-enflurane. Anesthesiology 1989; 70: 477–80.
Greiner AS, Larach DR. The effect of benzodiazepine receptor antagonism by flumazenil on the MAC of halothane in the rat. Anesthesiology 1989; 70: 644–8.
Schwartz AE, Maneksha FR, Kanchuger MS, Sidhu US, Poppers PJ. Flumazenil decreases the minimum alveolar concentration isoflurane in dogs. Anesthesiology 1989; 70: 764–6.
Hansen TD, Warner DS, Todd MM, Baker MT, Jensen NF. The influence of inhalational anesthetics on in vivo and in vitro benzodiazepine receptor binding in the rat cerebral cortex. Anesthesiology 1991; 74: 97–104.
Schwieger IM, Hall RI, Hug CC Jr. Less than additive antinociceptive interaction between midazolam and fentanyl in enflurane-anesthetized dogs. Anesthesiology 1991; 74: 1060–6.
Flaishon R, Halpern P, Sorkine P, et al. Cross-sensitivity between isoflurane and diazepam: evidence from a bidirectional tolerance study in mice. Brain Res 1999; 815: 287–3.