The value of meat as an antiscorbutic

Summary

Meat exclusive of such visceral organ as the liver has been regarded as a food playing no role or at least a very insignificant role as an antiscorbutic. The inability of muscle meat to prevent and to cure scurvy is an idea which has taken root because of the experiments of the earlier investigators. These workers did not appreciate the importance of freshly killed meat in contradistinction to fresh market meat. Furthermore, they used the guinea pig as a test animal. This animal has a limited gastro-intestinal capacity. It can, therefore, be fed only a small quantity of a food biologically assayed for Vitamin C content. If this small quantity possessed sufficient Vitamin C to cure or prevent scurvy, the food was said to possess antiscorbutic potency. If, however, this small quantity did not contain sufficient Vitamin C to cure or prevent scurvy, the food was regarded as one devoid of antiscorbutic potency. More recent experiments with freshly killed meat indicate that quantities fed within the physical capacity of the guinea pig possessed decided antiscorbutic value.

The chemical method for Vitamin C does not have the disadvantages of the guinea pig bio-assay method.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Stefansson, V.: The Dilemma in Vitamins.Science, 89:484, 1939.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Stefansson, V.: Observations on Three Cases of Scurvy.J. A. M. A., 71:715, 1918.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Stefansson, V.: Original Observations on Scurvy and My Opinion of the Medical Profession.Med. Review of Reviews, 24:257, 1918.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Stefansson, V.: The Food of Ancient and Modern Stone Age Man.J. Am. Dietetic Ass’n., 13:102, 1937.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Stefansson, V.: Adventures in Diet.Harper’s Magazine, Nov., 1935 and Dec, 1936.

  6. 6.

    Aron, H., Hirsch-Kaufmann, H. and Schädrich, E.: Lebertherapie bei Skorbut.Jahrberichte für Kinderheilkunde, 1:123, 1921.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Armentano, L., Bentsath, A., Beres, T., Rusznyak and Szent-Gyorgi, A.: Uber den Einfluss von Substanzen der Flavon Gruppe auf die Permeabilitat der Kapillaren: Vitamin P.Deutsehe medizinische Wochenschrift, 62:1325, 1933.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Bentsath, A., St. Ruszńyak and Szent-Györgi, A.: Vitamin Nature of Flavones.Nature, London, 138:798, 1936.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    St. Ruszńyak and Szent-Györgi, A.: Vitamin P.: Flavonols as Vitamins.Nature, London, 138:27, 1936.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Bruckner, V. and Szent-Györgi, A.: Chemical Nature of Citrin.Nature, London, 138:1057, 1936.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Zilva, S.: Vitamin P.Biochemical J., 31:915, 1488, 1937.Nature, London, 140:588, 1937.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Moll, T.: Zur Frage des Vitamin P.Klinische Wochenschrift, 16:1653, 1937.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    McHenry, E. W. and Perry, H. M.: Observations on the Relation of Vitamin P to Scurvy. Proceedings of the 7th annual meeting of the American Institute of Nutrition.J. Nutrit., 12:19, 1940.

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Jacobsen, E.: On the Storage of Ascorbic Acid in the Organs of Guinea Pigs Given Crystalline Ascorbic Acid with a Vitamin C Free Diet.Skandinavisches Archiv. für Physiologie, 72:259, 1935

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Fox, F. W. and Levy, S. F.: Experiments Confirming the Antiscorbutic Activity of Dehydroascorbic Acid and a Study of Its Storage and that of Ascorbic Acid by the Guinea at Different Levels of Intake.Biochemical J., 30:211, 1935.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Hawley, E. E., Daggs, R. G. and Stephens, D. J.: The Effect of the Administration of Acid and Alkaline Salts Upon the Ascorbic Acid Content of Guinea Pig Tissues.J. Nutrit., 1:14, 1937.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Todhunter, E. N., Robbins, R. C, Ivey, G. and Brewer, W.: A Comparison of the Utilization by Guinea Pigs of Equivalent Amounts of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) in Lemon Juice and in the Crystalline Form.J. Nutrit., 19:113, 1940.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Zacho, C. E.: Influence of Ascorbic Acid and of Citrin on Capillary Resistance of Guinea Pigs.Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, 16:144, 1939.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Scarborough, H.: Vitamin P.Biochemical J., 33:1400, 1939.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Elmby, A. and Warburg, E.: The Inadequacy of Synthetic Ascorbic Acid as an Antiscorbutic Agent.Lancet, 2:1363, 1937.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Jessild, T.: Therapeutic Effect of Vitamin P in Schönlein-Hen-noch Purpura.Lancet, 1:445, 1938.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Hoygaard, A. and Rasmussen, H. W.: Vitamin C Sources in Eskimo Food.Nature, London, 143:943, 1939.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Tressler, D. K., Mack, G. L. and King, C. G.: Factors Influencing Vitamin C Content of Vegetables.Am. J. of Public Health, 26:905. 1936.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Nelson. E. M. and Moltern, H. H.: The Vitamin C Content of Frozen Grape Juice.J. of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 25:216, 1933.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Stefansson, V.: Meat Diet. Blood as an Antiscorbutic Factor.Science, 84:227, 1936.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Fujita, A. and Ebihara, T.: Uber die Verteilung des Vitamins C in tierischen und pflanzlichen Geweben.Biochemische Zeitschrift, 290:20, 1937.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Fujita, A. and Ebihara, T.: Kolorimetrische Bestimmung von Vitamin C mittels Phospho-18-Wolframsaure II Mitteilung.Biochemische Zeitschrift, 290:192, 1937.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Fujita, A., Ebihara, T. and Numata, I.: Uber die Oxydation der Ascorbinsaure durch Hämoglobin.Biochemische Zeitschrift, 16: 483, 1937.

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Gabbe, E.: Über Adsorption von Ascorbinsäure im Blute.Klinische Wochenschrift, 301:243, 1939.

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Kellie, A. E. and Zilva, S. S.: Catalytic Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid.Biochemical J., 29:1028, 1935.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Van Eekelen, M.: The Amount of Ascorbic Acid in Blood and Urine. The Daily Requirements for Ascorbic Acid.Biochemical J., 30:2291, 1936.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Emmerie, A. and Van Eekelen, M.: Determination of Ascorbic Acid in the Blood.Biochemical J., 31:2125, 1937.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Berend, M. and Fisher, M.: Uber die Resorption des Vitamins C. Modifizierung der Methode Tillmans für die Bestimmung der Ascorbinsaure in farblosen Korperflussigkeiten.Biochemische Zeitschrift, 291:221, 1937.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Klodt, W.: Einfluss der Ascorbinsaure auf die Sauerstoffdissoziation des Blutes und den chemischen verlauf der vitalen Oxydationsprozesse.Klinische Wochenschrift, 15:1636, 1936.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Greenberg, L. D. and Rinehart, J. F.: The Stability of Ascorbic Acid in Blood.J. Lab. and Clinical Med., 25:1288, 1939-40.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Hamel, P.: Ueber die Vitamin C-Bilanz des Menschen.Klinische Wochenschrift, 16:1105, 1937.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Vitamins: A Survey of Present Knowledge. Medical Research Council. His Majesty’s Office, London, 1932, p. 268: also quoted by Rose, Mary Swartz. The Foundations of Nutrition. The Macmillan Co., 3rd edition, p. 310, 1938.

  38. 38.

    Hoygaard, A.: Some Investigations Into the Physiology and Nosology of Eskimos from Angmagssalik in Greenland: A Preliminary Statement.Norweg. Svalbard og Ishavos-und Sokelser Skriften om Svalbard og Ishavet., Nr. 74, 1937.

  39. 39.

    Barnes, R. E. and Hume, E. M.: Relative Antiscorbutic Value of Fresh, Dried and Heated Cow’s Milk.Biochemical J., 13:306, 1919.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Chick, H., Hume, E. H. and Skelton, R. F.: A Comparison Between the Antiscorbutic Properties of Fresh, Heated and Dried Condensed Milk.Biochemical J., 12:131, 1918.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Dutcher, R. A., Pierson, E. M. and Biester, E.: Vitamin Studies. The Antiscorbutic Properties of Raw Beef.J. of Biological Chemistry, 42:301, 1920.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Medes, Grace: The Antiscorbutic Vitamin in Fresh Beef.J. of Lab. and Clin. Med., 1:861, 1925-26.

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Gatti, C., Menendez, P. and Knallinsky, A.: Influencias de la carne y de la yerba mate sobre un brote de escorbuto humano y sobre el escorbuto experimental.Archivio di farmacologia sperimentali e scienze affini, 62:37, 1936.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Gatti, C., Menendez, P. and Knallinsky, A.: El escorbuto y la carne.Revista de la Sanidad Militär de Paraguay, 4:2, 1935.

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Lind, J.: An Essay on Diseases Incidental to Europeans in Hot Climates. 2nd edition, p. 206, 1771,

  46. 46.

    Drummond, J. C. and Wilbraham, A.: William Stark: Eighteenth Century Experiment in Nutrition.Lancet, 2:459, 1935.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Curran, J. O.: Observations on Scurvy as it Has Lately Appeared Throughout Ireland and in Several Parts of Great Britain.The Dublin Quartely J. of Med. Sci., 7:83, 1847.

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Barlow, T.: Infantile Scurvy in Relation to Reickets.Lancet, 2:1075, 1894.

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Stiebling, H. K.: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor, Report Serial No. R, 409, 1936.

  50. 50.

    Craik and MacFarlane: The Pictorial History of England. Vol. 2:881, 1849.

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Borsook, H.: Vitamins.The Viking Press, 1940.

  52. 52.

    Hehir, P. C.: Citation from Hess, A. F.: Scurvy, Past and Present. J. B. Lippincott Co., p. 19, 1920.

  53. 53.

    Lieb, C. W.: The Effects on Human Beings of a Twelve Month’s Exclusive Meat Diet.J. A. M. A., 93:20, 1929.

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Hess, A. F.: Scurvy, Past and Present. J. B. Lippincott Co., pp. 147–148, 1920.

  55. 55.

    Amundsen, R.: The South Pole. New York, 1913.

  56. 56.

    Scott, R. F.: Scott’s Last Expedition. The Personal Journals, New York, 1913.

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Hehir, P.: Scurvy.Indian J. of Med. Research Spec, Indian Scientific Congress, No. 79–82, 1919.

  58. 58.

    Willcox, W. H.: Treatment and Management of Diseases Due to a Deficiency of Diet, Scurvy and Beriberi.British Med. J., 1:73, 1920.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    King, C. G.: Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid.Physiological Reviews, 16:238, 1936.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Waugh, W. A. and King, C. S.: The Chemical Nature of Vitamin C.Science, 75:357, 1932.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Waugh, W. A. and King, C. S.: The Isolation and Identification of Vitamin C.J. Biol. Chem., 97:325, 1932.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Svirbely, J. L. and Szent-Györgi, A.: Hexuronic Acid as the Antiscorbutic Factor.Nature, London, 129:576, 1932.Biochemical J., 26:865, 1932.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Reichstein, T., Grüssner, A. and Oppenauer, P.: Synthesis of d-and 1-Ascorbic Acid.Helvetia Chemica Acta, 16:1019, 1933.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Bessey, O. A. and King, C. G.: Distribution of Vitamin C in Plant and Animal Tissue, and Its Determination.J. Biol. Chem., 103:687, 1933.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Fox, F. W. and Stone, W.: Antiscorbutic Value of Kaffir Beer.South African J. Med. Sci., 3:7, 1938.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Dyke, H. W.: Outbreak of Scurvy in the South African Native Labour Corps.Lancet, 2:513, 1918.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Levine, V. E.: Unpublished communication. 463

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Victor E. Levine.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Levine, V.E. The value of meat as an antiscorbutic. Jour. D. D. 8, 454–463 (1941). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03014680

Download citation

Keywords

  • Ascorbic Acid
  • Orange Juice
  • Lemon Juice
  • Fresh Meat
  • Scurvy