Reflexology, schizokinesis and autokinesis

  • W. Horsley Gantt


A resume of the history and concepts culminating in the work of Pavlov shows that there has been a gradual and slow elaboration toward a science of behavior. The past work has been oriented since the time of Locke increasingly toward the external environment. Pavlov’s theories, however, were directed toward forceswithin the nervous system. Further work from the Pavlovian Laboratories at Johns Hopkins and the V.A. (and elsewhere) indicate that the various physiological systems do not always work harmoniously, but that there is often a split in function (Schizokinesis)—changes occurring over a period of time—which do not seem to be referable to the external environment but to elaborations occurringwithin the organism (Autokinesis). These may tend toward improvement of function or, on the other hand, toward deterioration. The time has come when the progressive changes and the interrelationships of active fociwithin the organism should be considered as well as the reactivity of the individual toward the external environment.


Conditional Stimulus External Environment Unconditional Stimulus Conditional Reflex Internal Inhibition 
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Copyright information

© Springer 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Horsley Gantt
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Pavlovian LaboratoriesVA HospitalPerry Point
  2. 2.Johns Hopkins Medical SchoolBaltimore

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