Effect of Person

  • W. Horsley Gantt
  • Joseph E. O. Newton
  • Fred L. Royer
  • Joseph H. Stephens


The role of the experimenter in the behavioral study, although recognized by Darwin, Pavlov, psychiatrists and others, has not been adequately evaluated in terms of the quantitative measures of the CR. Our study in this paper concerns especially the cardiac changes induced by “Person” in normal and pathological animals—monkey, dog, cat, opossum, guinea pig and rabbit. Owing to the greater sensitivity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, these are more reliable and delicate measures than the usual somatic muscular ones. The Person can be used as an unconditional stimulus on the basis of which conditional reflexes are formed. Person has an especially pronounced effect on neurotic animals—shown often in a more pronounced way in the cardiorespiratory responses than in the more superficial behavioral ones. This Effect of Person may provide insights into the production of neurosis as well as some of the beneficial effects of therapy, e.g., the personal factor of the therapist.


Conditional Stimulus Unconditional Stimulus Startle Response Tactile Stimulation Sexual Excitation 
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Copyright information

© Springer 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Horsley Gantt
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joseph E. O. Newton
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fred L. Royer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joseph H. Stephens
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Johns Hopkins School of MedicinePerry Point
  2. 2.VA HospitalPerry Point

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