Skip to main content

Missing inventory estimation tool using extended input-output analysis

Abstract

Intention, Goal, Scope, Background

Input-Output Analysis (IOA) has recently been introduced to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In applying IOA to LCA studies, however, it is important to note that there are both advantages and disadvantages.

Objectives

This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of adopting IOA in LCA, and introduces the methodology and principles of the Missing Inventory Estimation Tool (MIET) as one of the approaches to combine the strengths of process-specific LCA and IOA. Additionairy, we try to identify a number of possible errors in the use of IOA for LCA purposes, due to confusion between industry output and commodity, consumer’s price and producer’s price.

Method

MIET utilises the 1996 US input-output table and various environmental statistics. It is based on an explicit distinction between commodity and industry output.

Results and Discussion

MIET is a self-contained, publicly available database which can be applied directly in LCA studies to estimate missing processes.

Conclusion

By adopting MILT results in existing, process-based, life-cycle inventory (LCI), LCA practitioners can fully utilise the process-specific information while expanding the system boundary.

Recommendations and Outlook

MIET will be continuously updated to reflect both methodological developments and newly available data sources. For supporting information sec http:// wwwJeidenuniv.nl/cml/ssp/softwarc/miet.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. [1]

    ISO (1998): Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis. ISO 14041, Geneva, Switzerland

  2. [2]

    Suh S (2000): Integrating cost information into alternative evaluation system for pollution prevention — An application of life cycle assessment and total cost assessment for an electromagnetic filtering device. Ajou University, Korea: downloadable at http://www.leidenuniv.nl/cml/ ssp/staff/Thesis-full.pdf

  3. [3]

    Raynold M, Roydon F, Checkel D (2000a): The relative mass-energy-economic (RMEE) method for system boundary selection, Part I: A means to systematically and quantitatively select LCA boundaries. Int J LCA 5 (1)37–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    Raynold M, Roydon F, Checkel D (2000b): The relative mass-energy-economic (RMEE) method for system boundary selection. Part II: Selecting the boundary cut-off parameter (ZRMEE) and its relationship to overall uncertainty. Int J LCA 5 (2) 96–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. [5]

    Hunt RG, Boguski TK, Weitz K, Sharma A (1998): Case studies examining LCA streamlining techniques. Int J LCA 3 (1) 36–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. [6]

    Okubo O, Lawson AM, Planting MA (2000): Annual input-output accounts of the U.S. Economy, 1996, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Department of Commerce, Washington D.C., USA

    Google Scholar 

  7. [7]

    Leontief WW (1936): Quantitative input and output relations in the economic systems of the United States. The Review of Economic Statistics 18 (3) 105–125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    Isard W (1968): Some notes on the linkage of the ecologic and economic systems. Regional Science Association, XXII, Budapest, 85–96

    Google Scholar 

  9. [9]

    Ayres RU, Kneese AV (1969): Production, consumption, and externalities. The American Economic Review 59 (3) 282–297

    Google Scholar 

  10. [10]

    Leontief W (1970): Environmental repercussions and the economic structure: An input-output approach. Review of Economics and Statistics 52 (3) 262–271

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. [11]

    Victor P (1972): Economics of pollution. Macmillan, Great Britain

    Google Scholar 

  12. [12]

    Moriguchi Y, Kondo Y, Shimizu H (1993): Analyzing the life cycle impact of cars: the case of C02. Industry and Environment 16 (1-2) 42–45

    Google Scholar 

  13. [13]

    Hendrickson C, Horvath A, Joshi S, Lave L (1998): Economic inputoutput models for environmental life cycle assessment. Environmental Science & Technology News, April 1, 184–190

  14. [14]

    Treloar G (1997): Extracting embodied energy paths from input-output tables: towards an input-output-based hybrid energy analysis method. Economic Systems Research 9 (4) 375–391

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. [15]

    Joshi S (2000): Product environmental life-cycle assessment using inputoutput techniques. Journal of Industrial Ecology 3 (2-3) 95–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. [16]

    Bullard CW, Pillati DA (1976): Reducing uncertainty in energy analysis, CAC-doc. no. 205. Center for Advanced Computation, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA

    Google Scholar 

  17. [17]

    Bullard CW, Penner PS, Pilati DA (1978): Net energy analysis — handbook for combining process and input-output analysis. Resources and Energy 1, 267–313

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. [18]

    Wilting HC (1996): An energy perspective on economic activities. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Groningen, The Netherlands

  19. [19]

    Lave LB, Cobas E, Hendrickson C, McMichael F (1995): Using inputoutput analysis to estimate economy-wide discharges. Environmental Science & Technology 29 (9) 420–426

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. [20]

    Miller R, Blair P (1985): Input-output analysis: Foundations and extensions. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, USA

    Google Scholar 

  21. [21]

    UN (1968): A system of national accounts studies in methods. Series F, No. 2 Rev. 3, United Nations, New York, USA

    Google Scholar 

  22. [22]

    Stone R, Bacharach M, Bates J (1963): Input-output relationships, 1951-1966. Programme for Growth, Volume 3, London, Chapman and Hall

    Google Scholar 

  23. [23]

    US Department of Commerce (1998): Benchmark input-output accounts of the United States, 1992. Industry Economics Division, Bureau of Economic Analysis, USA

    Google Scholar 

  24. [24]

    Suh S (2001a): MIET 2.0 User’s Guide. Downloadable at http://www. leidenuniv.nl/cml/ssp/software/miet

  25. [25]

    Suh S (2001b): Generalised calculus of allocation in life cycle assessment #x2014; Implications of economic models. CML Working Paper, CML, Leiden University, The Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  26. [26]

    Department of Energy (1998): Combined state energy Data System 1997 (CSEDS). DOE/EIA-0376(97), Washington DC, USA

  27. [27]

    Department of Energy (1999): Emission of greenhouse gases in the United States 1998. DOE/EIA-0573(98), Washington DC, USA

  28. [28]

    Department of Energy (2000a): Annual Energy Review 1999. DOE/EIA-0384(99), Washington DC, USA

  29. [29]

    Department of Energy (1997): Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994. DOE/EIA-0512(94), Washington DC, USA

  30. [30]

    Department of Energy (2000b): Greenhouse gas emission database. Database file, Energy Information Administration, Washington DC, USA

    Google Scholar 

  31. [31]

    Environmental Protection Agency (2000): Inventory of US. Greenhouse gas emission and sinks: 1990–1998. EPA 236-R-00–001, Washington DC, USA

  32. [32]

    Bureau of Economic Analysis (1998): Fuel consumption table for 1992, Database file

  33. [33]

    Environmental Protection Agency (2000): Toxic releases inventory 98. Database CD-ROM

  34. [34]

    Environmental Protection Agency (2000): Envirofact customized query on TRI 98. Available at http://www.epa.gov/enviro/

  35. [35]

    Environmental Protection Agency (2000): Air quality standard and planning data. Available at http://www.epa.gov/airs/

  36. [36]

    National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy (1995): Pesticide use in the US crop production. Washington D.C., US

  37. [37]

    World Resources Institute (1998): World resources database diskette — A guide to the global environment. Washington DC, USA

  38. [38]

    Sebald AV (1974): An analysis of the sensitivity of large scale inputoutput models to parametric uncertainties. Center for Advanced Computation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, CAC Document No. 122

    Google Scholar 

  39. [39]

    Bullard CW, Sebald AV (1988): Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis of input-output models. The Review of Economics and Statistics 70 (4) 708–712

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. [40]

    Marheineke T, Friedrich R, Krewitt W (1998): Application of a hybrid-approach to the life cycle inventory analysis of a freight transport task. Total Life Cycle Conference and Exposition, Austria

  41. [41]

    Suh S, Huppes G (2000): Gearing input-output model to LCA — Part I: General framework for hybrid approach. CML Working Paper, CML, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  42. [42]

    Suh S (2001c): A hybrid model for environmental systems analysis — Supply and Use framework for Life Cycle Assessment. CML Working paper, CML, Leiden University, The Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  43. [43]

    Suh S (ed.) (2001): Proceedings of European network of environmental input-output analysis. Madrid, Spain. Downloadable at http://www. leidenuniv.nl/cml/ssp/envioa/

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Sangwon Suh or Gjalt Huppes.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Suh, S., Huppes, G. Missing inventory estimation tool using extended input-output analysis. Int J LCA 7, 134–140 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02994047

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cut-off
  • input-output analysis (IOA)
  • LCI
  • missing inventory estimation tool (MIET)