Haryana-Punjab plain (Yamuna-Sutlej interfluve) is part of the Indo-Gangetic foreland basin and makes the eastern part of the Indus River system. It is characterized by southwestern regional slope and is made up of sediments derived from the Himalayan front. The southern part of the Haryana-Punjab plain has a narrow northeast sloping surface, made up of sediments derived from the Rajasthan craton, making the peripheral bulge of the basin. The area of interaction of these two opposing slopes is marked by a rather flat region of poor drainage with a number of water bodies. This interactive zone of the two slopes has a constricted belt of westerly outlet merging in the Indus alluvial plain.
The excessive sediments derived from the Himalayan front formed mega-fans, which in Late Pleistocene, extended down to 200 m altitude close to the southern limit of Haryana-Punjab plain. There are geomorphic evidence of punctuations in reduction in fan building activity during Late Quaternary with terminations at 225 and 300 m altitude, prominently seen in satellite imagery and Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The Haryana-Punjab plain also exhibits undulations with prominent highgrounds around Bhatinda, Hissar, and Sonipat-Jind. During the Late Quaternary, the streams of Yamuna-Sutlej interfluve region, viz., Dangri (sometimes referred as Tangri), Ghaggar-Saraswati, Markanda and Chautang, drastically reduced their carrying capacity due to reduced monsoon activity and neotectonic block movements. These streams abort within their terminal fans. Yamuna River is confined within its valley having prominent flood plain (T0) and well-developed Newer Alluvial plain (T1); as such it has not been a part of Indus system, at least during Holocene.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aithal, V.S., Gopalkrishnan, G, Prem Nath, Murty, Y.K., Brij Nandan and Das, N. (1964). Gravity and magnetic surveys in the plains of Punjab. Proc. Sec. 2, 22nd Ind. Geol. Congr., New Delhi, 1964, pp. 179–188.
Bakliwal, P.C. and Grover, A.K. (1988). Signatures and migration of Sarasvati river in Thar desert, western India. Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind., 116(3-8): 77–88; as appeared inMem. Geol. Soc. Ind., 1999, 42: 113-119.
Beaumont, C. (1981). Foreland basins.Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc.,55: 291–329.
Bhatia, S.B. and Singh, N. (1988). Middle Holocene palaeo-climatic and palaeo-environmental events in southern Haryana.Proc. Ind. Nat. Sci. Acad.,54(4): 574–584.
Burbank, D.W. (1992). Causes of recent Himalayan uplift deduced from deposited patterns in Ganga basin.Nature,357: 680–683.
Frawley, D. (1999). The myth of the Aryan invasion of India.Mem. Geol. Soc. Ind.,42: 57–62.
Ghosh, D.K. and Singh, I.B. (1988). Structural and geomorphic evolution of northwestern part of the Indo-Gangetic plain. Proc. Sem. Quat. Geol., Baroda, 1988, pp. 164–175.
Gupta, A.K., Sharma, J.R., Sreenivasan, G. and Srivastava, K.S. (2004). New findings on the course of River Sarasvati.J. Ind. Soc. Rem. Sens.,32(1): 1–24.
Jordan, T.E. (1981). Thrust loads and foralnad basin evolution, Cretaceous, western United States.Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull.,65: 2506–2520.
Kar, A. and Ghosh, B. (1984). The Drishadvati river system of India: an assessment and new findings.Geogr. J.,150: 221–229.
Karunakaran, C. and Ranga Rao, A. (1979). Status of exploration for hydrocarbons in the Himalayan region: contribution to stratigraphy and structure.Geol. Surv. Ind., Misc. Publ.,41(5): 1–66.
Kochhar, R. (2000). Vedic People Their History and Geography. Orient Longman Ltd., New Delhi, 255p.
Lyon-Caen, H. and Molnar, P. (1985). Gravity anomalies, flexure of the Indian plate and the structure, support and evolution of the Himalaya and Ganga basin.Tectonics,4: 513–538.
Mukerji, A.B. (1975). Geomorphic patterns and processes in the terminal triangular tract of inland streams in Sutlej-Yamuna plain, India.J. Geol. Soc. India,16: 450–459.
Mukerji, A.B. (1976). Terminal fans of inland streams in Satluj-Yamuna Plain, India. Z.Geomorphologie N.F.,20: 190–204.
Oldham, C.F. (1874). Notes on the Lost River of the Indian Desert. Calcutta Rev., LIX: 1-29; as reported by Wilhelmy(1969).
Oldham, CF. (1893). The Sarasvati and the Lost River of the Indian Desert. Jour. Royal Asiatic Society, 34: 49–76; as appeared inMem. Geol. Soc. Ind., 1999,42:89-93.
Oldham, R.D. (1886). On probable changes in the geography of the Punjab and its rivers: an historico- geographical study. Jour. Asiatic Society of Bengal, 55: 322–343; as appeared inMem. Geol. Soc. Ind., 1999,42:81–88.
Parkash, B., Awasthi, A.K. and Gohain, K. (1983). Lithofacies of the Markanda terminal fan, Kurukshetra district, Haryana, India.Spl. Publ., Int. Ass. Sediment.,6: 337–344.
Pascoe, E.H. (1973). A manual of the Geology of India and Burma. Geological Survey of India publication,3: 1980–2016, 2088–2090.
Raghav, K.S. (1999). Evolution of drainage basins in parts of northern and western Rajasthan, Thar desert, India.Mem. Geol. Soc. Ind.,42: 175–185.
Sahai, B. (1999). Unraveling of ”Lost” vedic Sarasvati.Mem. Geol. Soc. Ind.,42: 121–141.
Seeber, L., Armbruster, J.G. and Quittmere, R.C. (1981) Seismicity and continental subduction in the Himalayan Arc. In: Gupta, H.K. and Delany, F.M. (Eds.) Zagros, Hindukush, Himalaya Geodynamic Evolution. Geodynamics Series 3, Amer. Geophys. Union. Washington, D.C., pp. 215–242.
Singh, I.B. (1987). Sedimentological history of Quaternary deposits in Gangetic plain.Ind. J. Earth Sci.,14: 272–282.
Singh, I.B. (1996). Geological evolution of Ganga plainan overview.J. Pal. Soc. Ind.,41: 99–137.
Singh, I.B. (2004a). Quaternary evolution of the Ganga plain: implications for development of the Haryana- Punjab plains. Abstracts Workshop on Quaternary Geology of Yamuna-Indus Interfluve. 26-28 October, 2004, GSI Chandigarh, pp. 3–5.
Singh, I.B. (2004b). Late Quaternary history of the Ganga Plain. Proc. GLOCOPH 2002, Pune, India (Editor V.S. Kale), Geological Society of India.
Singh, I.B. (2005). Quaternary paeoenvironments of the Ganga plain and anthropogenic activity.Man and Environment,30(1): 1–35.
Singh, I.B. and Bajpai, V.N. (1989). Significance of syndepositional tectonics in facies development, Gangetic Alluvium near Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.J. Geol. Soc. India,34: 61–66.
Singh, I.B. and Ghosh, D.K. (1994). Geomorphology and neotectonic features of Indo-Gangetic Plain. In: Dikshit, K.R., Kale, V.S. and Kaul, M.N. (Editors). India: Geomorphological Diversity. Essays in honour of Prof. A.B. Mukerji. Rawat Publications, Jaipur and New Delhi, pp. 270–286.
Singhai, S.K., Parkash, B. and Manchanda, M.L. (1991). Geomorphological and pedological evolution of Haryana State.Bull. ONGC,28(2): 37–60.
Srivastava, G.S. and Kulshrestha, A.K. (2005). Neotectonic movements of Markanda and Bata blocks, Himachal Pradesh: inferences from morphometric analysis.Geol. Surv. Ind., Spl. Publ.,85: 217–224.
Thussu, J.L. (1999). Role of tectonics in drainage migration in Punjab-Haryana plains in recent times.Mem. Geol. Soc. Ind.,42: 205–217.
Valdiya, K.S. (2002). Sarasvati—the River that Disappeared. University Press (India) Ltd., Hyderabad, 116p.
Wilhelmy, H. (1969). The ancient river valley on the eastern border of the Indus Plain and the Sarasvati problem. Z. Geomorphologie N.F., Suppl. Band 8: 76-92; as appeared inMem. Geol. Soc. Ind., 1999,42: 95–111.
Yashpal, Sahai, B., Sood, R.K. and Agarwal, D.P. (1980). Remote Sensing of the ”Lost” Sarasvati River.Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., Earth and Planetary Sciences,69: 317–331.
About this article
Cite this article
Srtvastava, G.S., Singh, I.B. & Kulshrestha, A.K. Late quaternary geomorphic evolution of Yamuna-Sutlej interfluve: Significance of terminal fan. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 34, 123 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02991817
- Digital Elevation Model
- Foreland Basin
- Water Divide
- Ganga Plain
- Piedmont Zone