From June 1993 to October 1994, studies have been carried out on the effects of mercury in the Oder River and pike tissue contamination (muscle, kidney, liver). The mean mercury contents in the sediment range from 0.03 to 1.1 mg/kg dry weight. In the pike muscle, between 0.22 and 0.85 mg/kg, on a wet weight basis, were found. The measured mercury concentrations were analysed in relation to the number of macrophage centres of the liver, spleen and kidney of the pike. Positive correlations between mercury and MC response (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.79, p < 0.05) were found in all of these organs. The suitability of the macrophage-centre-response as a possible bioindicator for mercury pollution is discussed in the literature. In our study, the response of MCs was found to be suitable as a biomarker for the impairment of fish health.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Agius, C.: The role of melano-macrophage centres in iron storage in normal and diseased fish. J. Fish. Dis. 2, 337–343 (1979)
Agius, C.: The melano-macrophage centres of fish: A review. In: “Fish Immunology”. Edited byM. J. Manning and M. F. Tatner, 85–106 (1985)
Agius, C.;Roberts, R. J.: Effects of starvation on the melanomacrophage centres of fish. J. Fish. Biol. 19, 161–169 (1981)
Agius, C.;Agbede, S. A.: An electron microscopical study on the genesis of lipofuscin, melanin and haemosiderin in the haemopoietic tissues of fish. J. Fish. Biol. 24, 471–488 (1983)
Biagianti Risbourg, S.: Immune cells in the liver of mugilid juveniles (Liza sp.; Mugilidae; Teleostei): Ultrastructural approach. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 9, 97–109 (1993)
Bucke, D.;Watermann, B.;Feist, S.: Histological variations of hepatosplenic organs from the North Sea dab,Limanda limanda (L.). J. Fish. Dis. 7, 255–268 (1984)
Bucke, D.;Vethaak A. D.;Lang, T.: Quantitative assessment of melanomacrophage centres (MMCs) in dabLimanda limanda along a pollution transect in the German Bight. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 91, 193–196 (1992)
Chilmonczyk, S.;Monge, D.: Rainbow trout gill pillar cells: demonstration of inert particle phagocytosis and involvement in viral infection. J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 28, 327–332 (1980)
Ellis, A. E.;Munroe, A. L. S.;Roberts, R. J.: Defense mechanism in fish. 1. A study of the phagocytic system and the fate of intraperitoneally injected material in the plaice (Pleuronectus platessa). J. Fish. Biol. 8, 67–78 (1976)
Gill, T. S.;Pant, J. C.: Mercury-induced blood anomalies in the freshwater teleostBarbus conchonius Ham. Water Air Soil Pollut. 24, 165–171 (1985)
Haaparanta, A., E.T. Valtonen, R. Hoffmann, andJ. Holmes: Do macrophage centres in freshwater fishes reflect the differences in water quality? Aquatic Toxicology 34: 253–272 (1996).
Haensly, W. E.;Neff, J. M.;Sharp, J. R.;Morris, A. C.;Bedgood, M. F.;Boem, P. D.: Histopathology ofPleuronectus platessa from Aber Wrac’h and Aber Benoit, Brittany, France: long term effects of the Amoco Cadiz crude oil spill. J. Fish. Dis. 5, 365–391 (1982)
Hinton, D. E.;Baumann, P. C.;Gardner, G. R.;Hawkins, W. E.;Hendricks, J. D.;Murchelano, R. A.;Okihiro, M. S.: Histopathologic Biomarkers. In: “Biomarkers”. Edited byR. J. Huggett, R. A. Kimerle, P. M. Mehrle, andH. L. Bergman. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, 155–209 (1992)
Hinton, D. E.; Laurèn, D.: Integrative histopathological approches to detecting effects of environmental Stressors on fish. In: “Biological indicators of stress in fish”. Edited byS. A. Adams. Bethesda, Maryland, American Fisheries Symposium 8, 51–66 (1990)
Hontela, A.;Rasmussen, J. B.;Audet, C.;Chevalier, G.: Impaired cortisol stress response in fish from environments polluted by PAHs, PCBs, and mercury. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 22, 278–283 (1992)
Khan, R. A.;Kiceniuk, J.: Histopathological effects of crude oil on Atlantic cod following chronic exposure. Can. J. Zool. 62, 2038–2043 (1984)
Kranz, H.: Changes in splenic melano-macrophage centres of dabLimanda limanda during and after infection with ulcer disease. Dis. Aquat. Org. 6, 167–173 (1989)
Kranz, H.;Peters, N.: Melano-macrophage centres in liver and spleen of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) from the Elbe Estuary. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 37, 415–424 (1984)
Kranz, H.;Peters, N.: Pathological conditions in the liver of ruff (Gymnocephalus cernua), from the Elbe estuary. J. Fish Diseases 8, 13–24 (1985)
Krüger, R.;Yoshida, T.;Meinelt, T.;Pietrock, M.: Entwicklung einer einfachen Methodik zur Darstellung der Makrophagenzentren aus Leber, Niere und Milz von Knochenfischen. Zeitschrift für Fischkunde 3, 59–75 (1995)
Lauren, D. J.;Teh, S. J.;Hinton, D. E.: Cytotoxicity phase of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic neoplasia in medaka. Cancer Res. 50, 5504–5514 (1990)
Matida, Y.;Kumada, H.;Kimura, S.;Saiga, Y.;Nose, T.;Yokote, M.;Kawatsu, H.: Toxicity of mercury compounds to aquatic organisms and accumulation of the compounds by the organisms. Bull. Freshwater Fish. Res. Lab. 21, 197–227 (1971)
McKim, J. M.;Olson, G. F.;Holcombe, G. W.;Hunt, E. P.: Longtermed effects of methylmercuric-chloride on three generations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis): Toxicity, accumulation, distribution, and elimination. J. Fish. Res. Board Canada 33, 2726–2739 (1976)
Micale, V.;Perdichizzi, F.: A quantitative and histochemical study on melano-macrophage centres in the spleen of the teleost fishDiplodus annularis L. J. Fish. Biol. 37, 191–197 (1990)
Moore, J. W.;Sutherland, D. J.: Mercury concentrations in fish inhabiting two polluted lakes in northern Canada. Water Research 14, 903–907 (1980)
Moore, M. J.;Smolowitz, R.;Stegeman, J. J.: Cellular alterations preceding neoplasia inPseudopleuronectes americanus from Boston Harbor. Responses of Marine Organisms to Pollutants 28, 425–429 (1989)
Murchelano, R. A.;Wolke, R. E.: Neoplasms and nonneoplastic liver lesions in winter flounder,Pseudopleuronectes americanus, from Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. Environ. Health Perspect. 90, 26 (1991)
Pierce, K. V.;McCain, B. B.;Wellings, S. R.: Pathology of hepatomas and other liver abnormalities in English sole (Parophrys vetulus) from the Duwamish River Estuary, Seattle, Washington. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 60, 1445–1453 (1978)
Rodgers, D. W.;Beamish, F. W. H.: Dynamics of dietary methylmercury in rainbow trout,Salmo gairdneri. Aquat. Toxicol. 2, 271–290 (1983)
Smith, C. E.: The prevention of liver lipoid degeneration (ceroidosis) and microcytic anaemia in rainbow trout fed rancid diets: a preliminary report. J. Fish Dis. 2, 429–437 (1979)
Vogelbein, W. K.;Fornie, J. W.;Overstreet, R. M.: Sequential development and morphology of experimentally induced hepatic macro-melanophage centres inRivulus marmoratus. J. Fish Biol. 31, Supplement A, 145–153 (1987)
Wolke, R. E.;Murchelano, R. A.;Dickstein, C. D.;George, C. J.: Preliminary evaluation of the use of macrophage aggregates (MA) as fish health monitors. Bull. Environm. Contam. Toxicol. 35, 222–227 (1985)
Zaniolo, G.;Burighel, P.: Morphological observations on the zooid regression of the colonial ascidianBotryllus schlossen. Bull. Zool. 43, 405 (1976)
About this article
Cite this article
Meinelt, T., Krüger, R., Pietrock, M. et al. Mercury pollution and macrophage centres in pike (Esox lucius) tissues. Environ. Sci. & Pollut. Res. 4, 32–36 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02986262
- Mercury pollution
- macrophage centres
- biomarker research
- Esox lucius
- pike tissue