International Journal of Hematology

, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp 147–153 | Cite as

Allele Frequencies and Molecular Genotyping of the ABO Blood Group System in a Kuwaiti Population

  • Suzanne Al-Bustan
  • Mokhtar El-Zawahri
  • Daleil Al-Azmi
  • Abdul-Aziz Al-Bashir
Progress in Hematology


The phenotypic distributions of observed numbers of ABO blood groups in a Kuwaiti sample population of 18,558 subjects are 4962 (26.7%) with A, 4462 (24.1%) with B, 858 (4.6%) with AB, and 8276 (44.6%) with O. The calculated gene frequencies are 0.6678 for ABO*O, 0.1768 for ABO*A, and 0.1554 for ABO*B. Molecular genotyping of the ABO blood group system in a Kuwaiti sample population was determined using polymerase chain reaction—restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The positions of nucleotides 258 and 700 of cDNA from A transferase were amplified by PCR. The amplified DNA was subjected to RFLP analysis to distinguish A, B, and O alleles. Blood samples of known ABO phenotype from 101 healthy unrelated Kuwaiti individuals (A, 29; B, 23;AB, 14; O, 35) were used.Two DNA fragments of the ABO locus were designed to be amplified by 2 pairs of primers. To identify the 258th nucleotide, a 199- or 200-bp DNA fragment was amplified by PCR and digested withKpnI. For the 700th nucleotide, a 128-bp DNA fragment was amplified by PCR and digested withAluI. By analyzing the electrophoresis patterns,ABO genotypes were conclusively determined by examining the DNA fragments. The ABO genotypes of the known 101 samples were as follows:AA, 4.30%;AO, 24.41%;BB, 4.16%;BO, 24.2%;AB, 8.46%; andOO, 34.65%. These results were confirmed statistically using the calculated frequencies ofIA,IB, andIO alleles.

Key words

Allele frequencies Molecular ABO Kuwait 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Landsteiner K. Ueber agglutinationsercheinungen normalen men-schichen blutes.Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1901;14:1132–1134.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reid M, McManus K, Zelinski T. Chromosome location of genes encoding human blood groups.Transfus Med Rev. 1998;12:151–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mourant A, Kopec A, Domaniewska K.The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups and Other Polymorphisms. 2nd ed. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 1976.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tills D, Kopec A, Tills R.The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups and Other Polymorphisms. Suppl. 1. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 1983.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gaensslen R, Lee H. Genetic markers in human bone tissue.Forensic Sci Rev. 1990;2:125–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mourant A, Kopec A, Sobezak D.Blood Groups and Diseases. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 1978.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Herrin G Jr. A simplified amplification procedure for two regions of the glycosyl transferase (ABO blood group) gene.J Forensic Sci. 1996;41:138–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee H. Identification and grouping of blood stains. In: Saferstain R, ed. Forensic Science Handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1982:267–337.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bolton S, Thorpe J. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for A and B water soluble blood group substances.J Forensic Sci. 1986;31:27–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee H, Gaensslen R, Pagliaro E, Novitch B. Two-dimensional absorption-inhibition.J Forensic Sci. 1988;33:1127–1138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhou B, Gou J, Wang C, Chen J. The rapid determination of ABO group from body fluid (or stains) by dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA) using enzyme-labeled monoclonal antibodies.J Forensic Sci. 1990;35:1125–1132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yamamoto F, Marken J, Tsuji T, White T, Clausen H, Hakomori S. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to human UDP-GalNAC:Fuca1-2Gal a1- 3GalNAc transferase (his-toblood group A transferase) on RNA.J Biol Chem. 1990;265:1146–1151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yamamoto F, Clausen H, White T, Marken J, Hakomori S. Molecular genetic basis of the histo-blood group ABO system.Nature. 1990;345:229–2333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clausen H, Bennett E, Grunnet N. Molecular genetics of the ABO histo-blood groups.Transfus Clin Biol. 1994;2:78–89.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yamamoto F. Molecular genetics of the ABO histoblood group system.Vox Sang. 1995;69:1–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yamamoto F, McNeill P, Hakomori S. Human histo-blood group A2 transferase coded by A2 allele, one of the A subtypes, is characterized by a single base deletion in the coding sequence, which results in an additional domain at the carboxyl terminal.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;187:366–374.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yamamoto F, McNeill P, Yamamoto M, et al. Molecular genetic analysis of the ABO blood group system, 1: weak subgroup:A3 and B3 alleles.Vox Sang. 1993;64:116–119.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ishimoto S, Nishida S, Shima M, Fujiwara Y. Molecular genetic analysis the ABO blood group system, 2: Cis-AB alleles.Vox Sang. 1993;64:120–123.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yamamoto F, McNeill P, Yamamoto M, Hakomori S, Haris T. Molecular genetic analysis of the ABO blood group system, 3: Ax and B(A) alleles.Vox Sang. 1993;64:171–174.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yamamoto F. Review: recent progress in the molecular genetic study of the histo-blood group ABO system.Immunohematology. 1994;10:1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grunnet N, Steffensen R, Bennet E, Clausen H. Evaluation of histo-blood group ABO genotyping in a Danish population: frequency of a novel O allele defined as O2.Vox Sang. 1994;67:210–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Olsson M, Thuresson B, Chester M. An Ael allele-specific nucleotide insertion at the blood group ABO locus and its detection using a sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;216:642–647.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Watanabe G, Umetsu K, Yuasa I, Suzuki T. Amplified product length polymorphism (APLP): a novel strategy for genotyping the ABO blood group.Hum Genet. 1997;99:34–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lee J, Chang J. ABO genotyping by polymerase chain reaction.J Forensic Sci. 1992;37:1269–1275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Akane A, Yoshimura S, Yoshida M, et al. ABO genotyping following a single PCR amplification.J Forensic Sci. 1996;41:272–274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ugozzoli L, Wallace R. Application of an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction to the direct determination of ABO blood group genotypes.Genomics. 1992;12:670–674.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Johnson P, Hopkinson D. Detection of ABO blood group polymorphism by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.Hum Mol Genet. 1992;1:341–344.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maniatis T, Fritch E, Sambrook J.Molecular Cloning:A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1982.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    McArthur N, Penrose, LS. World frequencies of the O, A and B blood group genes.Ann Eugen. 1951;15:302–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Khalil I, Phrykian S, Farr A. Blood group distribution in Sudan.Gene Geogr. 1989;3:7–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bandyopadhyay A. A study on blood groups and serum proteins in Bengalee populations of Calcutta, India.Anthropol Anz. 1994;52:215–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fukumori Y, Ohnoki S, Shibata H, Nishimukai H. Suballeles of the ABO blood group system in a Japanese population.Hum Hered. 1996;46:85–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Hematology 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne Al-Bustan
    • 1
  • Mokhtar El-Zawahri
    • 1
  • Daleil Al-Azmi
    • 1
  • Abdul-Aziz Al-Bashir
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesKuwait UniversitySafat
  2. 2.Central Blood Bank of KuwaitSafatKuwait

Personalised recommendations