International Journal of Hematology

, Volume 73, Issue 2, pp 262–265 | Cite as

Graft Failure Due to Hemophagocytic Syndrome After Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

  • Kenji Fukuno
  • Hisashi Tsurumi
  • Toshiki Yamada
  • Masami Oyama
  • Hisataka Moriwaki
Case Report


Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can occasionally cause graft failure. We describe a female patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) with graft failure due to HPS 12 days after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Autologous PBSCT was carried out during unconfirmed/uncertain complete remission according to the Cotswolds classification after 6 cycles of biweekly (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) therapy and 3 courses of salvage chemotherapy including etoposide. The patient developed a high fever on day 2 post-PBSCT. Her white blood cell count rose to 0.9 X 109/L on day 10 post-PBSCT, but then began to decrease. A bone marrow aspirate on day 12 post-PBSCT revealed an increase in the number of benign histiocytes with hemophago-cytosis, and the patient was diagnosed with HPS. Although high-dose methylprednisolone therapy was continued, her white blood cell count further decreased to 0.3 × 109/L, and the patient died of multiple organ failure on day 29 post-PBSCT. A computed tomography scan did not identify recurrent NHL, and necropsy specimens from the bone marrow, liver, and kidney revealed no neoplastic infiltration. Bone marrow necropsy showed marked hypocellularity with active histiocytic hemophagocytosis. HPS may have been induced by infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rather than by lym-phoma-associated HPS.

Key words

Hemophagocytic syndrome Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation Graft failure Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Hematology 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenji Fukuno
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hisashi Tsurumi
    • 2
  • Toshiki Yamada
    • 1
    • 2
  • Masami Oyama
    • 1
  • Hisataka Moriwaki
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineKisogawa HospitalAichiJapan
  2. 2.First Department of Internal MedicineGifu University School of MedicineGifuJapan

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