Toxicity of neem to natural enemies of aphids

Abstract

Neem [Azadirachta indica (A. Juss.)] seed oil (NSO) applied in three concentrations, 0.5%, 1% and 2%, to potted plants infested with green peach aphid,Myzus persicae (Sulzer), totally prevented adult eclosion of larval coccinellids,Coccinella undecimpunctata L., and reduced adult eclosion of syrphids,Eupeodes fumipennis (Thompson), to 11%, 7% and 0%, respectively, of the controls. Under the same conditions, NSO did not reduce the rate of parasitism ofM. persicae byDiaeretiella rapae (Mcintosh), but emergence of parasitoid adults from aphid mummies collected from treated plants was reduced to 35%, 24% and 0%, respectively, of the controls. Although topical treatment of predator larvae with NSO at concentrations of up to 5% did not affect survival, emergence of parasitoids from mummies dipped in aqueous emulsions of NSO at similar rates was reduced significantly. Under field conditions, sprays of NSO and neem seed extract to plants had no significant impact on the number of aphids parasitized. Although total numbers of predators were reduced, numbers of predators relative to aphid numbers were similar to those in controls. Neem insecticides may be suitable for use in integrated pest management programs, as under field use they appear to be relatively benign to aphid predators and parasitoids.

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Correspondence to D. T. Lowery or M. B. Isman.

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Lowery, D.T., Isman, M.B. Toxicity of neem to natural enemies of aphids. Phytoparasitica 23, 297–306 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02981422

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Key Words

  • Neem
  • Azadirachta indica
  • aphid
  • Myzus persicae
  • parasitoid
  • Diaeretiella rapae
  • predators
  • Coccinella undecimpunctata
  • Eupeodes fumipennis
  • toxicity