Archives of Pharmacal Research

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 821–825 | Cite as

Antioxidant and memory enhancing effects of purple sweet potato anthocyanin and cordyceps mushroom extract

  • Jungsook Cho
  • Jong Seong Kang
  • Pham Hoai Long
  • Jhang Jing
  • Yiho Back
  • Kyeong-Soo ChungEmail author
Research Articles Articles


The effects of purple sweet potato anthocyanin (SPA) and Cordyceps mushroom extract (CME) on lipid peroxidation, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and cognitive deficits were examined. Both SPA and CME exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activities with similar potency. In contrast, only SPA was shown to effectively inhibit lipid peroxidation initiated by Fe2+ and ascorbic acid in rat brain homogenates. Furthermore, SPA markedly enhanced cognitive performance, assessed by passive avoidance test in ethanol-treated mice. Combined treatments with SPA and CME did not significantly influence the effects of SPA alone. These results demonstrate that anthocyanin prepared from purple sweet potato exhibits memory enhancing effects, which may be associated with its antioxidant properties.

Key words

Sweet potato Anthocyanin Antioxidant Memory enhancement Cordyceps mushroom 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amouretti, M., Therapeutic value ofVaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides in an internal medicine department.Therapeutique, 48, 579–581 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Blois, M. S., Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical.Nature, 181, 1199–1200 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brewer, G. J., Age-related toxicity to lactate, glutamate, and β-amyloid in cultured adult neurons.Neurobiol. Aging, 19, 561–568 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coyle, J. T. and Puttfarken, P., Oxidative stress, glutamate, and neurodegenerative disorders.Science, 262, 689–695 (1993)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Goda, Y., Shimizu, T., Kato, Y., Nakamura, M., Maitani, T., Yamada, T., Terahara, N., and Yamaguchi, M., Two acylated anthocyanins from purple sweet potato.Phytochem., 44, 183–186 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jayle, G. E., Aubry, M., Gavini, H., Braccini, G., and De la Baume, C, Study concerning the action of anthocyanoside extracts of Vaccinium Myrtillus on night vision.Ann. Ocul., 198, 556–562 (1965).Google Scholar
  7. Jianzhe, Y, Xiaolan, M., Quiming, M., Yichen, Z., and Huaan, W., Icons of medicinal fungi from China. Science Press, Beijing, China, pp. 12–23 (1987).Google Scholar
  8. Jo, A., Sawai, Y, and Kakuo, H., Food ingredients from purple sweet potato improving the blood circulation.Japanese patent, 2001–145471 (2001).Google Scholar
  9. Lazze, M. C., Pizzala, R., Savio, M., Stivala, L. A., Prosperi, E., and Bianchi, L., Anthocyanins protect against DNA damage induced byterf-butylhydroperoxide in rat smooth muscle and hepatoma cells.Mutation Res., 535, 103–115 (2003).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Lee, S. C., You, K. H., and Kim, E. B., The functional role of limbic system on memory; Behavioral and neurochemical alterations following acute administration of ethanol in rats.J. Pharm.Sci., 11, 1–10 (1995).Google Scholar
  11. Liu, F. and Ng, T B., Antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities of selected medicinal herbes.Life Sci., 66, 725–735 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ng, T B., Liu, F., and Wang, Z. T., Antioxidative activity of natural products from plants.Life Sci., 66, 709–723 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Odake, K., Terahara, N., Saito, N., Toki, K., and Honda, T., Chemical structures of two abthocyanins from purple sweet potato,Ipomoea batatas.Phytochem., 31, 2127–2130 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Raghavendra, V. and Kulkarni, S. K., Possible antioxidant mechanism in melatonin reversal of aging and chronic ethanol-induced amnesia in plus-maze and passive avoidance memory tasks.Free Rad. Biol. Med., 30, 595–602 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ramirez-Tortosa, C, Anderson, O. M., Gardner, P. T, Morrice, P. C., Wood, S. G., Duthie, S. J., Collins, A. R., and Duthie, G. G., Anthocyanin-rich extract decreases indices of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in Vitamin E-depleted rats.Free Rad. Biol. Med., 31, 1033–1037 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rodriguez-Saona, L. E., Wroistad, R. E., and Pereira, C., Glycoalkaloid content and anthocyanin stability to alkaline treatment of red-fleshed potato extracts.J. Food Science, 64, 445–450 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shafiee, M., Carbonneau, M. A., d’Huart, J. B., Descomps, B., and Leger, C. L., Synergistic antioxidative properties of phenolics from natural origin toward low-density lipoproteins depend on the oxidation system.J. Med. Food, 5, 69–78 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sohal, R. S., Arnold, L. A., and Sohal, B. H., Age-related changes in antioxidant enzymes and prooxidant generation in tissues of the rat with special reference to parameters in two insect species.Free Radic. Biol. Med., 9, 495–500 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sterling, M., Got anthocyanins?Nutrition Science News, December Issue (2001).Google Scholar
  20. Sung, J. M., The insect-born fungus of Korea in color. Kyo-Hak Pub. Co., Seoul, Korea (1996).Google Scholar
  21. Tanizawa, H., Ohkawa, Y., Takino, Y., Miyase, T, Ueno, A., Kageyama, T, and Hara, S., Studies on natural antioxidants in citrus species. I. Determination of antioxidative activities of citrus fruits.Chem. Pharm. Bull., 40, 1940–1942 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Tsuda, T., Shiga, K., Ohshima, K., Kawakishi, S., and Osawa, T., Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the active oxygen radical scavenging effect of anthocyanin pigments isolated fromPhaseolus vulgaris L.Biochem. Pharmacol., 52, 1033–1039 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tsuda, T., Kato, Y., and Osawa, T., Mechanism for the peroxynitrite scavenging activity by anthocyanins.FEBS Lett., 484, 207–210 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang, C. J., Wang, J. M., Lin, W. L., Chu, C. Y., Chou, F. P., and Tseng, T. H., Protective effects ofHibiscus anthocyanins againsttert-butylhydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.Food Chem. Toxicol., 38, 411–416 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jungsook Cho
    • 2
  • Jong Seong Kang
    • 1
  • Pham Hoai Long
    • 1
  • Jhang Jing
    • 1
  • Yiho Back
    • 3
  • Kyeong-Soo Chung
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of PharmacyChungnam National UniversityDaejeonKorea
  2. 2.College of MedicineDongguk University, GyeongjuGyeongbukKorea
  3. 3.Dongyi Agriculture Cooperative, PoryongChungnamKorea

Personalised recommendations