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Pathophysiological implication of ganglioside GM3 in early mouse embryonic development through apoptosis

Abstract

Apoptosis may occur in early embryos where the execution of essential developmental events has failed, and gangliosides, sialic acid-conjugated glycosphingolipids, are proposed to regulate cell differentiation and growth. To evaluate the regulatory roles of ganglioside GM3 in early embryonic development, this study examined its expressional patterns in apoptotic cells during early embryonic development in mice. Pre-implanted embryos were obtained byin vitro fertilization, which were treated at the 4-cell stage with three the apoptosis inducers, actinomycin D, camptothecin and cycloheximide, for 15 h. All three inducers significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, as measured using a TUNEL method, but remarkably reduced the total cell numbers. The numbers of morula and blastocyst stages were significantly decreased by treatment of the embryos with the three apoptosis inducers compared with the control, with a similar result also observed in the number of blastomeres. Staining of early embryos with Hoechst 33342 revealed a significant percentage of apoptotic nuclei. Prominent immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a significant difference in the ganglioside GM3 expression in apoptotic embryos compared with the control, and RT-PCR also demonstrated a dramatic increase in ganglioside GM3 synthase mRNA in the apoptotic embryos. These results suggest that ganglioside GM3 may be pathophysiologically implicated in the regulation of early embryonic development through an apoptotic mechanism.

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Correspondence to Young-Kug Choo.

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Ju, EJ., Kwak, DH., Lee, DH. et al. Pathophysiological implication of ganglioside GM3 in early mouse embryonic development through apoptosis. Arch Pharm Res 28, 1057–1064 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02977402

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02977402

Key words

  • Ganglioside GM3
  • Apoptosis
  • Early embryonic development