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Journal of Public Health

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 229–246 | Cite as

Prävention durch Bewegung

Zur Evidenzbasierimg von Interventionen zur Förderung körperlicher Aktivität
  • Alfred Rütten
  • Karim Abu-Omar
Article

Zusammenfassung

Der Beitrag geht den Fragestellungen nach, welche nachgewiesenen Wirksamkeiten von körperlicher Aktivität auf Gesundheit bestehen und durch welche spezifischen Interventionen körperliche Aktivität auf Bevölkerungsebene gefordert werden kann. Aus evidenzbasierter Sicht kann im Ergebnis festgehalten werden, dass positive gesundheitliche Effekte von körperlicher Aktivität nachgewiesen sind. Demgegenüber ist die Bestimmung des optimalen Volumens an körperlicher Aktivität und der Einfiuss des Kontextes von körperlicher Aktivität auf die gesundheitlichen Effekte noch nicht hinreichend geklärt. Bei der Beurteilung von populationsbezogenen Interventionen zur Förderung körperlicher Aktivität zeigt sich, dass Informationskampagnen über Massenmedien keinen Erfolg nachweisen können. Gemeindebezogene Interventionen führen im Hinblick auf körperliche Aktivität nur partiell zu Steigerungen, scheinen aber Verbesserungen im Gesundheitsverhalten insgesamt zu bewirken. Politik- und umweltbezogene Ansätze sind zurzeit noch wenig erforscht, sind aber im Ansatz vielversprechend. Insgesamt gibt es gerade bei der Beurteilung der Wirksamkeit von populationsbezogenen Interventionen im Rahmen der Sport- und Gesundheitswissenschaften Forschungsbedarf. Aktuelle Problembereiche sind in diesem Zusammenhang Mängel in der Durchführung einzelner populationsbezogener Interventionsstudien sowie von Meta-Analysen zu diesem Thema.

The evidence-base for interventions to promote physical activity

Abstract

The article examines the existing evidence for beneficial effects of physical activity on health. Further, the article examines which types of interventions to promote physical activity on the population level are effective. Results indicate that there is sufficient evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity on health. However, the optimal volume for physical activity and effects of context of physical activity on health have yet to be determined. An evaluation of different types of interventions to increase physical activity yields that mass media campaigns do not seem to be effective in promoting physical activity. Community based interventions are successful in promoting health behaviour in general, but do show only little effect on physical activity. Studies that have attempted to modify policies and the environment in order to increase physical activity have only rarely been conducted but do show some promising results. Overall, there is a need for studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the population level. Currently, problems arise from shortcomings in the conducted interventions, and from shortcomings in the meta-evaluation of such interventions.

Stichworte

Körperliche Aktivität Interventionen Evidenzbasierung 

Keywords

physical activity interventions evidence-base 

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© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Sportwissenschaft und SportFriedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

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