Advertisement

Journal of Computer Science and Technology

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 347–355 | Cite as

Automatic image-based pencil sketch rendering

  • Wang Jin Email author
  • Bao Hujun 
  • Zhou Weihua 
  • Peng Qunsheng 
  • Xu Yingqing
Correspondence

Abstract

This paper presents an automatic image-based approach for converting greyscale images to pencil sketches, in which strokes follow the image features. The algorithm first extracts a dense direction field automatically using Logical/Linear operators which embody the drawing mechanism. Next, a reconstruction approach based on a sampling-and-interpolation scheme is introduced to generate stroke paths from the direction field. Finally, pencil strokes are rendered along the specified paths with consideration of image tone and artificial illumination. As an important application, the technique is applied to render portraits from images with little user interaction. The experimental results demonstrate that the approach can automatically achieve compelling pencil sketches from reference images.

Keywords

non-photorealistic rendering pencil sketch image-based rendering pen-and-ink illustration 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Veryorka O, Buchanan J. Comprehensive halftoning of 3D scenes.Computer Graphics Forum, EUROGRAPHICS'99, 1999, 18(3): 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Deussen O, Hiller S. Floating points: A method for computing stipple drawings.Computer Graphics Forum, EUROGRAPHICS'2000, 2000, 19(3): 455–466.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Buchanan J W. Special effects with half-toning.Computer Graphics Forum, EUROGRAPHICS'96, 1996, 15(3): 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Winkenbach G. Rendering parametric surfaces in pen-and-ink.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'96, 1996, pp. 469–476.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Salisbury M. Scale dependent reproduction of pen-and-ink illustrations.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'96, 1996, pp. 461–468.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Zeleznik R C. SKETCH: An interface for sketching 3D scenes.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'96, 1996, pp. 163–170.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Ostromoukhov V. Digital facial engraving.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'99, 1999, pp. 417–424.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Salisbury M P, Anderson S E, Barzel R, Salesin D H. Interactive pen-and-ink illustration.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'94, 1994, pp. 101–108.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Winkenbach G, Salesin D H. Computer-generated pen-and-ink illustration.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'94, 1994, pp. 91–100.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Curtis C J, Anderson S E, Seims J E, Fleischer K W, Salesin D H. Computer-generated watercolor.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'97, 1997, pp. 421–430.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Aaron Hertzmann. Painterly rendering with curved brush strokes of multiple sizes.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'98, 1998, pp. 453–460.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Meier B J. Walt disney feature animation: Painterly rendering for animation.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'96, 1996, pp. 477–484.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Gregg Kreutz. Problem Solving for Oil Painters. Watson-Guptill Publications, 1986.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Strothotte T, Preim B, Raab A, Schumann J, Forsey D R. How to render frames and influence people.Computer Graphics Forum, 1994, 13(3): 455–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Litwinowicz P. Processing images and video for impressionist effect.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'97, 1997, pp. 407–414.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Sousa M C. Observational model of blenders and erasers in computer-generated pencil rendering. InProceedings of Graphics Interface'99, 1999, pp. 157–166.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Sousa M C, Buchanan J W. Observational Models of Graphite Pencil and Drawing Paper for Non-Photorealistic Rendering. In URL: http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/~mario/TR/pencil.psGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Sousa M C, Buchanan J W. Computer-generated graphite pencil rendering of 3D polygonal models.Computer Graphics Forum, EUROGRAPHICS'99, 1999, 18(3): 195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Melissa Hao. Computer-Generated Figure Drawing. In URL: http://www.mit.edu/~mhao/drawingGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Shiraishi M, Yamaguchi Y. An algorithm for automatic painterly rendering based on local source image approximation. InProceedings of NPR'2000, 2000, pp. 53–58.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Salibury M P, Wong M T, Hughes J F, Salesin D H. Orientable textures for image-based pen-and-ink illustration.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'97, 1997, pp. 401–406.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Canny J. A computational approach to edge detection.IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 8(6): 679–698.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Heuckel M H. An operator which locates edges in digital pictures.Journal of Association for Computing Machinery, 1971, 18(3): 113–125.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Jones J P, Palmer L A. An evaluation of the two-dimensional gabor filter model simple receptive fields in cat striate cortex.Journal of Neurophysics, 1987, 58(b): 1233–1258.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Iverson L A, Zucker S W. Logical/Linear Operators for Image Curves. In URL: ftp://ftp.cim.mcgill.ca/pub/people/leei/loglin.tar.gzGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Nielson G, Foley T, Hamann B, Lane D. Visualizing and modeling scattered multivariate data.IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE Compute. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos CA, May, 1991, 11(3): 47–55.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Kass M, Within A, Terzopoulos D. Snake: Active contour model,International Journal of Computer Vision, 1988, pp. 321–331.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Wong Y Y, Yuen P C, Tong C S. Segmented snake for contour detection.Pattern Recognition, 1998, 31(11): 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Ostromoukhov V, Hersch R D. Artistic screening.computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'95, 1995, pp.219–227.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Dooley D, Cohen M. Automatic illustration of 3D geometric models: Lines. InProceedings of 1990 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, 1990, pp. 77–82.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Markosian L, Meier B J, Kowalski M A, Holden L S, Northrup J D, Hughers J F. Art-based rendering with continuous levels of detail. InProceedings of NPR'2000, 2000, pp. 59–66.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Elber G. Line art rendering via a coverage of isoparametric curves.IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 1998, 1(3): 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Whitted T. Anti-aliased line drawing using brush extrusion.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'83, 1983, pp. 151–156.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Lansdown J, Schofield S. Expressive rendering: A review of nonphotorealistic techniques.IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 1995, 15(3): 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Berkel P V. SIAS, strokes interpreted animated sequences.Computer Graphics Forum, 1989, 8(8): 35–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Strassmann S. Hairy brushes.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'86, 1986, pp. 225–232.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Hsu S C, Lee I H H. Drawing and animation using skeletal strokes.Computer Graphics, ACM Siggraph'94, 1994, pp. 109–118.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Nothrup J D, Markosian L. Artistic silhouettes: A hybrid approach. InProceedings of NPR, 2000, pp. 31–37.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Girshick A, Interrants V, Haker S, Lemoine T. Line direction matters: An argument for the use of principle direction in 3D line drawing. InProceedings of NPR, 2000, pp. 43–52.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Beijing China and Allerton Press Inc. 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wang Jin 
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bao Hujun 
    • 1
  • Zhou Weihua 
    • 1
  • Peng Qunsheng 
    • 1
  • Xu Yingqing
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of CAD&CGZhejiang UniversityHangzhouP. R. China
  2. 2.Microsoft China ResearchBeijingP. R. China

Personalised recommendations