Diabetes mellitus is as much a vascular disease as it is a metabolic disorder. The metabolic abnormalities associated with diabetes include hyperglycemia, and abnormal carbohydrate, fat, and protein handling. These abnormalities increase oxidative stress and activate the renin angiotensin system, which subsequently causes endothelial dysfunction and predisposes to atherosclerosis. Type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions and because of its strong association with coronary artery disease (CAD), it is responsible for increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the United States. In this article we review some of the evidence and the rationale for comprehensive risk reduction to prevent and treat CAD in individuals with diabetes mellitus. The comprehensive risk reduction strategy includes lifestyle changes, glycemic control, and control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Advances in revascularization techniques, and superior outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting as an interventional modality over percutaneous coronary intervention, are discussed. We also identify controversies and issues that currently remain unresolved.
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Srikanth, S., Deedwania, P. Management of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Cardiol Rep 9, 264–271 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02938374
- Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
- Coronary Artery Bypass Graft