Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 9–27 | Cite as

Comparison of the pretreatment of sweetgum and white Oak by the steam explosion and RASH Processes

  • Tor P. Schultz
  • Jagdish R. Rughani
  • Gary D. McGinnis
Session 1 Thermal and Chemical Processing


Steam explosion and rapid steam hydrolysis/continuous extraction (RASH) processes were compared using sweetgum and white oak as the feedstocks. Both pretreatments employ steam and are relatively rapid, but there are several differences between the two processes. Both pretreatments dramatically increased the enzymatic hydrolysis rate but not the acid hydrolysis rate of the cellulose. Both water insoluble xylose or alkali insoluble lignin contents could be used to predict the relative enzymatic hydrolysis rate. Steam explosion depolymerized and degraded the hemicelluloses, whereas RASH minimized further degradation of the hemicelluloses. The lignin was depolymerized by both pretreatments, with steam explosion forming a moderately condensed lignin. No significant differences were observed between white oak and sweetgum samples treated by either process, suggesting that the selection of particular hardwood is not a critical factor for a potential biomass plant in the southeastern US.

Index Entries

Steam explosion rapid steam hydrolysis biomass pretreatment white oak sweetgum 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Millett, M. A., Baker, A. J., and Satter, L. D. (1976),Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 6, 125.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lipinsky, E. S. (1979),Hydrolysis of Cellulose: Mechanisms of Enzymatic and Acid Hydrolysis, Brown, R. D., Jr. and Jurasek, L., eds., American Chem. Soc, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    McMillin, C. W. and Manwiller, F. G. (1980), US Dept. of Agric, Forest Service. General Tech. Report SO-29.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Koch, P. (1985), Agric. Handbook No. 605.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stamm, A. J. (1961),For. Prod. J. 11, 310.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    DeLong, E. A. (1981), Cand. Pat. 1,096,374.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Foody, P. (1980), Final Report to US Dept. of Energy, DE-AC02-79ETZ3050.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bungay, H. R., Garcia, M. A., and Foody, B. E. (1983),Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. 13, 121.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hemmingson, J. A. and Dekker, R. F. H. (1987),J. Wood Chem. Tech. 7, 229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jurasek, L. (1978),Dev. Ind. Microbiol. 20, 177.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Marchessault, R. H., Coulombe, S., Hanai, T., and Morikawa, H. (1980),Cand. Pulp Paper 6, TR52.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marchessault, R. H., Coulombe, S., Morikawa, H., and Robert, D. (1982),Cand. J. Chem. 60, 2372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marchessault, R. H., Malhotra, S. L., Jones, A. Y., and Perovic, A. (1983),Wood and Agricultural Residues, Soltes, J., ed., Academic, NY.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Saddler, J. N., Mes-Hartree, M., Yu, E. K. C, and Brownell, H. H. (1983),Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 13, 225.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schultz, T. P., Biermann, C. J., and McGinnis, G. D. (1983),Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 22, 344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schultz, T. P., Templeton, M. C, Biermann, C. J., and McGinnis, G. D. (1984),J. Agric. Food Chem. 32, 1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schultz, T. P., McGinnis, G. D., and Biermann, C. J. (1988), Elsevier, NY, in press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tanahashi, M., Takada, S., Aoki, T., Goto, T., Higuchi, T., and Hanai, S. (1983),Wood Res. 69, 36.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tekely, P. and Vignon, M. R. (1987),J. Wood Chem. Tech. 7, 215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wong, K. Y., Deverell, K. F., Mackie, K. L., Clark, T. A., and Donaldson, L. A. (1988),Biotechnol. Bioeng. 3, 447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brownell, H. H., Mes-Hartree, M., and Saddler, J. N. (1984), Proceeding of the First Bioenergy Specialists Meeting on Biotechnology, S. Hasnain, J. Lampley, M., Moo-To, eds.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brownell, H. H., Yu, E. C, and Saddler, J. N. (1986),Biotechnol. Bioeng. 28, 792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brownell, H. H. and Saddler, J. N. (1987),Biotechnol. Bioeng. 29, 228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Biermann, C. J., Schultz, T. P., and McGinnis, G. D. (1984),J. Wood Chem. Tech. 4, 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Haw, J. F., Maciel, G. E., and Biermann, C. J. (1984),Holzforschung 38, 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Puls, J., Poutanen, K., Korner, H.-V., and Viikari, L. (1985),Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22, 416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sudo, K., Shimizu, K., and Sakurai, K. (1985),Holzforschung 39, 281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gardner, D. J., Schultz, T. P., and McGinnis, G. D. (1985),J. Wood Chem. Tech. 5, 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gardner, D. J. and Sellers, T., Jr. (1986),For. Prod. J. 36(5), 61.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schwald, W., Brevil, C., Brownell, H. H., Chan, M., and Saddler, J. N. (1988),Appl. Bioch. and Biotechnol. this issue.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chum, H. L., Johnson, D. K., Black, S., Baker, J., Grohmann, K., Sarkanen, K. V., Wallace, K., and Schroeder, H. A. (1988),Biotechnol. Bioeng. 31, 643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Grohmann, K., Torget, R., and Himmel, M. (1985),Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 15, 59.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tor P. Schultz
    • 1
  • Jagdish R. Rughani
    • 1
  • Gary D. McGinnis
    • 1
  1. 1.Mississippi Forest Products Utilization LaboratoryMississippi State UniversityPO Drawer FP

Personalised recommendations