Advertisement

Cancer risks derived from alcohol

  • Albert J. Tuyns
Chemical Cancer Risks
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Most cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract are related to alcohol consumption. For the mouth, oesophagus and larynx a positive dose-response relationship has been observed, as well as a combination effect with tobacco smoking—according to a multiplicative model in the case of the oesophagus. Nutritional factors also play a role. For other cancer sites, the role of alcohol is controversial, except for primary liver cancer which often develops on a cirrhotic liver. The mechanisms by which alcohol increases cancer risk are still obscure. It is not considered to be a carcinogen by itself but rather as a co-carcinogen, facilitating or enhancing the role of other carcinogens. Another mechanism might be the induction of microsomal enzymes activating pro-carcinogens. As in the case for smoking, prevention can be achieved by abstention or reduction of consumption. This has to be considered seriously in countries where alcohol consumption is increasing.

Key words

Alcohol Cancer Epidemiology Risks 

References

  1. 1.
    Schwartz D, Lellouch J, Flamant R, Denoix P F: Alcool et cancer—résultats d'une enquête retrospective.Revue fr Étud clin Biol 7, 590 (1962).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies and World Health Organization (Europe):International Statistics on Alcoholic Beverages, Production, Trade and Consumption, Vol. 27. Helsinki, Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies (1977).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tuyns A J: Incidence trends of laryngeal cancer in relation to national alcohol and tobacco consumption, in Magnus K (ed):Trends in Cancer Incidence, Causes and Practical Implications, pp. 199–214. Washington, Hemisphere (1982).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Breslow N E, Enstrom J E: Geographic correlations between cancer mortality rates and alcohol-tobacco consumption in the United States.J natn Cancer Inst 53, 631 (1974).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tuyns A J: Cancer of the oesophagus: further evidence of the relation to drinking habits in France.Int J Cancer 5, 152 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wynder E L, Bross I J, Feldman R M: A study of the etiological factors in cancer of the mouth.Cancer 10, 1300 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wynder E L, Bross I J: A study of etiological factors in cancer of the oesophagus.Cancer 14, 389 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wynder E L, Covey L S, Mabuchi K, Mushinski M: Environmental factors in cancer of the larynx. A second look.Cancer 38, 1591 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rothman K, Keller A: The effect of joint exposure to alcohol and tobacco on risk of cancer of the mouth and pharynx.J chron Dis 25, 711 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tuyns A J, Péquignot G, Jensen O M: Le cancer de l'oesophage en Ille-et-Vilaine en fonction des niveaux de consommation d'alcool et de tabac. Des risques qui se multiplient.Bull Cancer 64, 45 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tuyns A J: Oesophageal cancer in non-smoking drinkers and in non-drinking smokers.Int J Cancer 32, 443 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tuyns A J, Riboli E, Doornbos G, Péquignot G: Diet and esophageal cancer in Calvados (France).Nutr Cancer 9, 81 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schmidt W, De Lint J: Causes of death of alcoholics.Q J Stud Alcohol 33, 171 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lemon F R, Walden R T, Woods R W: Cancer of the lung and mouth in Seventh-Day Adventists. Preliminary report on a population study.Cancer 17, 486 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Enstrom J E: Cancer mortality among Mormons.Cancer 36, 825 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jensen O M: Cancer morbidity and causes of death among Danish brewery workers.Int J Cancer 23, 454 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Williams R R, Horm J W: Association of cancer sites with tobacco and alcohol consumption and socioeconomic status of patients; interview study from the Third National Cancer Survey.J natn Cancer Inst 58, 525 (1977).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Durbec J P, Chevillotte G, Bidart J M, Berthezène P, Sarles H: Diet, alcohol, tobacco and risk of pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.Br J Cancer 47, 643 (1983).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Willett W C, Stampfer M J, Golditz G A, Rosner B A, Hennekens C H, Speizer F E: Moderate alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer.New Engl J Med 316, 1174–1180 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gibel W, Lohs K H, Schremmer K, Wildner G P: Experimentalle Untersuchungen über toxische Wirkungen von Alkoholbeistoffen.Dte GeundhWes 25, 573 (1970).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Horie A, Kohchi S, Kuratsune M: Carcinogenesis in the esophagus. II. Experimental production of oesophageal cancer by administration of ethanolic solution of carcinogens.Gann 56, 429 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Griciute L, Castegnaro M, Bereziat J C: Influence of ethyl alcohol on the carcinogenic activity ofN-nitrosodi-n-propylamine, in Bartsch H, O'Neill I K, Castegnaro N, Okada M (eds): N-Nitroso Compounds: Occurrence and Biological Effects, IARC Sci. Publ. no. 41, pp. 643–648. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer (1982).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    McCoy G D, Chen C B, Hecht S S, McCoy E C: Enhanced metabolism and mutagenesis of nitrosopyrrolidine in liver fractions isolated from chronic ethanol-consuming hamsters.Cancer Res 39, 793 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lieber C S, Garro A, Leo M A, Worner T: Alcohol and cancer.Hepatology 6, 1005 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pergamon Press Ltd. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert J. Tuyns
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit of Analytical EpidemiologyInternational Agency for Research on CancerLyon Cédex 08France

Personalised recommendations