German export performance
The Federal Republic of Germany's exports in 1980 represented approximately 23% of GNP. Germany's share of total world exports, however, declined throughout the seventies. What are the factors influencing German export performance? What is the outlook for the future?
KeywordsFederal Republic Real Exchange Rate Real Wage Total Factor Productivity Growth Export Performance
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- 1.See World Bank: World Development Report 1981, pp. 3, 10.Google Scholar
- 3.For details, see E. E. Leamer, R. M. Stern: Quantitative International Economics, Boston 1970, chapter 7; J. David Richardson: Constant Market Share Analysis of Export Growth, in: Journal of International Economics, May 1971; and OECD: Economic Surveys: Germany, Paris, June 1981, pp. 57–59.Google Scholar
- 4.German exports actually grew by only 32.1%. For further details, see OECD, op. cit. Economic Surveys: Germany, Paris, June 1981.Google Scholar
- 5.See J. W. Kendrick: International Comparisons of Recent Productivity Trends, in: W. Fellner (project director) Essays in Contemporary Economic Problems 1981–1982, Washington, D.C., American Enterprise Institute, 1981, Table 6, p. 137.Google Scholar
- 6.Cf. J. R. Artus, A. G. Turner: Measures of Potential Output in Manufacturing by Ten Industrial Countries, 1955–1980, IMF, processed, May 1978; T. P. Hill: Profits and Rates of Return, OECD, Paris 1979; and B. Balassa: The Changing International Division of Labor in Manufactured Goods, in: Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, Quarterly Review, No. 130, September 1979.Google Scholar
- 7.The ratio of R+D expenditures to gross domestic product rose in Germany from less than 1.0 in 1960 to 2.3 in 1973 and 2.39 in 1979. See Kendrick, p. 158. See also the Sachverständigenrat: Jahresgutachten 1981/82, p. 196.Google Scholar