The interaction of cadmium with calcium and cisplatin with chloride
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Changes in the locomotor rate of the ciliateTetrahymena pyriformis were used to quantitatively evaluate chemical interactions produced by: cadmium in combination with varying amounts of calcium, andcis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II) (cisplatin) with varying amounts of sodium chloride.
Cadmium (as CdCl2) produces a measurable decline in the locomotor rate of the cells. Cadmium's detrimental effect can be reduced by the addition of calcium (as CaCl2) in combination with cadmium. At a ratio of 30∶1 (calcium: cadmium), cadmium's negative effect upon motility is essentially nullified. It is suggested that the “protective” action afforded by calcium stems from the chemical similarity of the two cations and their involvement/competition for molecular sites responsible for the energy release and/or delivery of ciliary activity.
Cisplatin will also effect a reduction in ciliary activity. However, the interaction between cisplatin, sodium chloride, and the cell appears more complex than that found with cadmium-calcium. At the lower range of chloride (as NaCl) used in this study, increased chloride concentration produces an increase in cisplatin's action against ciliary activity. At the higher levels, the chloride reduced cisplatin's negative effects. It is suggested that the increases in cisplatin's effects are caused by mass chemical action of increased chloride, which increases the concentration of the nonpolar cisplatin. The reduced effects found with the higher concentrations of sodium chloride may be because of the presence and action of elevated NaCl in/on the cell.
This study clearly demonstrates differences in biologically relevant chemical interactions occurring with the two sets: cadmium-calcium and cisplatin-chloride.
Index EntriesCadmium calcium cisplatin chloride motility Tetrahymena pyriformis cadmium-calcium interaction cisplatin-chloride interaction
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