An eddy-permitting oceanic general circulation model and its preliminary evaluation

  • Liu Hailong
  • Zhang Xuehong
  • Li Wei
  • Yu Yongqiang
  • Yu Rucong
Article

Abstract

An eddy-permitting, quasi-global oceanic general circulation model, LICOM (LASG/IAP (State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics) Climate System Ocean Model), with a uniform grid of 0.5° × 0.5° is established. Forced by wind stresses from Hellerman and Rosenstain (1983), a 40-yr integration is conducted with sea surface temperature and salinity being restored to the Levitus 94 datasets. The evaluation of the annual mean climatology of the LICOM control run shows that the large-scale circulation can be well reproduced. A comparison between the LICOM control run and a parallel integration of L30T63, which has the same framework but a coarse resolution, is also made to confirm the impact of resolution on the model performance. On account of the reduction of horizontal viscosity with the enhancement of the horizontal resolution, LICOM improves the simulation with respect to not only the intensity of the large scale circulations, but also the magnitude and structure of the Equatorial Undercurrent and South Equatorial Current. Taking advantage of the fine grid size, the pathway of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is better represented in LICOM than in L30T63. The transport of ITF in LICOM is more convergent in the upper layer. As a consequence, the Indian Ocean tends to get warmer in LICOM. The poleward heat transports for both the global and individual basins are also significantly improved in LICOM. A decomposed analysis indicates that the transport due to the barotropic gyre, which primarily stands for the barotropic effect of the western boundary currents, plays a crucial role in making the difference.

Key words

eddy-permitting oceanic general circulation model large-scale circulation 

References

  1. Byan, F. O., and R. D. Smith, 1998: Modeling the North Atlantic circulation, from eddy-permitting to eddyresolving.International WOCE Newsletter,33, 12–14.Google Scholar
  2. Chen Kerning, Zhang Xuehong, and Jin Xiangze, 1994: A coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model for studies of global climate changes, I. Formulation and performance of the model.Acta Oceanologia Sinica,19, 21–32. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Covey, C., 1995: Global ocean circulation and equator-pole heat transport as a function of ocean GCM resolution,Climate Dyn.,11, 425–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Da Silva, A. M., C. C. Young, and S. Levitus, 1994: Atlas of surface marine data 1994, Vol.1: Algorithms and Procedures. NOAA Atlas NECDIS 6, U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Washington, DC, 83pp.Google Scholar
  5. Dong Min, and Coauthors, 2000: The development and application of an atmospheric general circulation model for seasonal prediction.Research on the short term climate prediction system in China, Vol. 2, Beijing, China Meteorological Press, 63–69. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. Fang Guohong, Wei Zexun, Huang Qizhou, and Fang Wendong, 2002: Volume, heat and salt transports between the southern South China Sea and its adjacent waters, and their contribution to the Indonesian Throughflow.Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica,33, 296–302. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Fanning, A. F., and A. J. Weaver, 1997: A horizontal resolution and parameter sensitivity study of heat transport in an idealized coupled climate model,J. Climate,10, 2469–2478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fu, L. L., and R. D. Smith, 1996, Global ocean circulation from satellite altimetry and high-resolution computer simulation,Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,11, 2625–2636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ganachaud, A., and C. Wunsch, 2003, Large-scale ocean heat and freshwater transports during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment.J. Climate,16, 696–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gates, W. L., J. F. B. Mitchell, G. J. Boer, U. Cubasch, and V. P. Meleshlo, 1992: Climate modeling, climate prediction and model validation.Climate Change, The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, J. T. Honghton et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, UK, 97–134.Google Scholar
  11. Gent, P. R., and J. C. McWilliams, 1990: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models.J. Phys. Oceanogr.,20, 150–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gent, P. R., F. Bryan, S. Doney, and W. Large, 1999: A perspective on the ocean component of climate models.CLIVAR Exchanges,4, 11–14.Google Scholar
  13. Godfrey, J. S., 1989: A Sverdrup model of the depthintegrated flow for the World Ocean, allowing for island circulations.Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn.,45, 89–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Godfrey, J. S., 1996: The effect of the Indonesian through-flow on ocean circulation and heat exchange with the atmosphere: A review.J. Geophys. Res.,101, 12217–12237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gordon, A. L., and J. L. McClean, 1999: Thermohaline stratification of the Indonesian Seas: Model and Observations,J. Phys. Oceanogr.,29, 198–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gordon, A. L., R. D. Susanto, and A.L. Ffield, 1999: Throughflow within Makassar Strait.Geophys. Res. Lett.,26, 3325–3328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gordon, A., 1986, Interocean exchange of thermocline water.J. Geophys. Res.,91, 5037–5046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Griffies, S. M., and coauthors, 2000: Development in ocean climate modeling.Ocean Modeling,2, 123–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haney, R. L., 1971: Surface thermal boundary conditions for ocean circulation models.J. Phys. Oceanogr.,1, 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hellerman, S., and M. Rosenstein, 1983: Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with error estimates.J. Phys. Oceanagr.,13, 1093–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hirst, A. C., and J. S. Godfrey, 1993: The role of the Indonesian Throughflow in a global GCM.J. Phys. Oceanogr.,23, 1057–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. IPCC, 2001:Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), J. T. Houghton et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, UK, 944pp.Google Scholar
  23. Jin Xiangze, Zhang Xuehong, and Zhou Tianjun, 1999: Fundamental framework and experiments of the third generation of IAP/LASG world ocean general circulation model.Adv. Atmos. Sci.,16, 197–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jin Xiangze, Yu Yongqiang, Zhang Xuehong, Zhou Tianjun, and Liu Hailong, 2000: The simulated wind driven circulation and thermohaline circulation by L30T63 oceanic general circulation model.Research on the Short Term Climate Prediction System in China, Vol.2, China Meteorological Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. Kiehl, J. F., J. J. Hack, G. B. Bonan, B. A. Boville, D. L. Willianmson, and P. J. Pasch, 1998: The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM3.J. Clim.,11, 1131–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lebdev, K. V., and M. I. Yaremchuk, 2000: A diagnostic study of the Indonesian Throughflow.J. Geophys. Res.,105, 11243–11258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Levitus, S., and T. P. Boyer, 1994: World Ocean Atlas 1994 Volume 4: Temperature. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4. U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C. 117pp.Google Scholar
  28. Levitus, S., R. Burgett, and T. P. Boyer, 1994: World Ocean Atlas 1994 Volume 3: Salinity. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3., U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C. 99pp.Google Scholar
  29. Liu Hailong, 2002: High resolution oceanic general circulation model and the simulation of the upper ocean circulation in the tropical Pacific. Ph.D. dissertation, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 178pp. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Liu Hui, Jin Xiangze, Zhang Xuehong, and Wu Guoxiong, 1996: A coupling experiment of an atmosphere and an ocean model with a monthly anomaly exchange scheme.Adv. Atmos. Sci.,13, 133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu Xiying, 2001: The simulation and study of sea-iceair interaction in the northern high latitude region, Ph.D. dissertation, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 136pp. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  32. Liu Xiying, Liu Hailong, Zhang Xuehong, and Yu Rucong, 2003: Implementation of a reduced grid in IAP/LASG world ocean general circulation models. LASG Report No. 10, March, 2003, 8–20.Google Scholar
  33. Liu Xiying, Zhang Xuehong, Yu Yongqiang, and Yu Rucong, 2004: Mean climatic characteristics in high northern latitudes in an ocean-sea ice-atmosphere coupled model.Adv. Atmos. Sci.,21, 236–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Masumoto, Y., and T. Yamagata, 1996: Seasonal variations of the Indonesian throughflow in a general circulation model,J. Geophys. Res.,101, 12287–12294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Molcard, R., M. Fieux, and A.G. Ilahude, 1996: The Indo-Pacific throughflow in the Timor Passage.J. Geophys. Res.,101, 12411–12420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Molcard, R., M. Fieux, and F. Syamsudinb, 2001: The throughflow within Ombai Strait.Deep-Sea Res.,48, 1237–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Murray, S. P., and D. Arief, 1988: Throughflow into the Indian Ocean through Lombok Strait, January 1985-January 1986.Nature,333, 444–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pacanowski, R. C., and S. G. H. Philander, 1981: Parameterization of vertical mixing in numerical models of the tropical ocean.J. Phys. Oceanagr.,11, 1442–1451.Google Scholar
  39. Pacanowski, R., 1995: MOM 2 Documentation: Users Guide and Reference Manual ver 1.0. GFDL Ocean Group Technical Report No. 3, NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, 232pp.Google Scholar
  40. Philander, S. G. H., 1990:El Niño, La Nina, and the Southern Oscillation. Academic Press, 293pp.Google Scholar
  41. Schneider, N., 1998: The Indonesian Throughflow and the global climate system.J. Clim.,11, 676–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schneider, N., and T. P. Barnett, 1997: Indonesian Throughflow in a CGCM.J. Geophys. Res.,102, 12341–12358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Semtner, A. J., and R. M. Chervin, 1988: A simulation of the global ocean circulation with resolved eddies.J. Geophys. Res.,93, 15502–15522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Semtner, A. J., and R. M. Chervin, 1992: Ocean general circulation from a global eddy-resolving model.J. Geophys. Res.,97, 5493–5550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Smith, R. D., J. K. Dukowicz, and R. C. Malone, 1992: Parallel Ocean General Circulation Modeling.Physica D,60, 38–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stammer, D., R. Tokmakian, A. Semtner, and C. Wunsch, 1996, How well does a (1/4)∘ global circulation model simulate large-scale oceanic observations.J. Geophys. Res.,101, 25779–25811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stockdale, T., D. Anderson, M. Davey, P. Delecluse, A. Katternburg, Y. Kitamura, M. Latif, and T. Yamagata, 1993: Intercomparison of tropical ocean GCMs.Tech. Doc. WMO. TD 545, 43pp.Google Scholar
  48. Wajsowicz, R. C., and E. K. Schneider, 2001: The Indonesian Throughflow’s effect on global climate determined from the COLA coupled climate system.J. Climate,14, 3029–3042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wei Zexun, 1999: Diagnostic study of the world ocean and North Pacific circulation. M. S. thesis, Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 37pp. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  50. Whitworth, T. III, 1983: Monitoring the transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current at Drake Passage.J. Phys. Oceanogr.,13, 2045–2057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wickett, M. E., P. B. Duffy, and G. Rodriguez, 2000: A reduced grid for a parallel global ocean general circulation model.Ocean Modelling,2, 85–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wolanski, E., E. Rido, and M. Inoue, 1988: Currents through Torres.J. Phys. Oceanogr.,18, 1535–1545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wu Guoxiong, Liu Hui, Zhao Yuncheng, and Li Weiping, 1996: A nine-layer atmospheric general circulation model and its performance.Adv. Atmos. Sci.,13, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wu Guoxiong, and Coauthors, 1997: Global ocean-atmosphere-land system model of LASG (GOALS/LASG) and its performance in simulation study.Quart. J. Appl. Meteor. (Suppl.), 15–28. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  55. Wunsch, W., 1996:The Ocean Circulation Inverse Problem, Cambridge University Press, 442pp.Google Scholar
  56. Yu Yongqiang, 1997: Design of ocean-atmosphere-sea ice coupling scheme and simulation of interdecadal oscillation of climate. Ph. D. dissertation, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130pp. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  57. Yu Yongqiang, and Zhang Xuehong, 1998: A modified airsea flux anomaly coupling scheme.Chinese Science Bulletin,43, 866–870. (in Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yu Yongqiang, Zhang Xuehong, Jin Xiangze, and Zhou Tianjun, 2000: The air-sea flux anomaly coupling scheme.Research on the Short Term Climate Prediction System in China, 2, China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 201–207.Google Scholar
  59. Yu Yongqiang, Yu Rucong, Zhang Xuehong, and Liu Hailong, 2002: A flexible coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model.Adv. Atmos. Sci.,19, 169–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhang Xuehong, and Liang Xinzhong, 1989: A numerical world ocean general circulation model.Adv. Atmos. Sci.,6, 43–61.Google Scholar
  61. Zhang Xuehong, Bao Ning, Yu Rucong, and Wang Wanqiu, 1992: Coupling scheme experiments based on an atmospheric and an oceanic GCM.Chinese J. Atmos. Sci.,16, 129–144.Google Scholar
  62. Zhang Xuehong, Chen Kerning, Jin Xiangze, Lin Wuyin, and Yu Yongqiang, 1996: Simulation of the thermohaline circulation with a twenty-layer oceanic general circulation model.Theoretical and Applied Climatology,55, 65–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zeng Qingcun, Zhang Xuehong, Liang Xinzhong, Yuan Chongguang, and Chen Shengfang, 1989: Documentation of IAP two-level Atmospheric General Circulation Model. DOE/ER/60314-H1, TR044, 383pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liu Hailong
    • 1
  • Zhang Xuehong
    • 1
  • Li Wei
    • 1
  • Yu Yongqiang
    • 1
  • Yu Rucong
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijing

Personalised recommendations