Skip to main content
Log in

Detecting and adjusting temporal inhomogeneity in Chinese mean surface air temperature data

  • Published:
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Adopting the Easterling-Peterson (EP) techniques and considering the reality of Chinese meteorological observations, this paper designed several tests and tested for inhomogeneities in all Chinese historical surface air temperature series from 1951 to 2001. The result shows that the time series have been widely impacted by inhomogeneities resulting from the relocation of stations and changes in local environment such as urbanization or some other factors. Among these factors, station relocations caused the largest magnitude of abrupt changes in the time series, and other factors also resulted in inhomogeneities to some extent. According to the amplitude of change of the difference series and the monthly distribution features of surface air temperatures, discontinuities identified by applying both the E-P technique and supported by China’s station history records, or by comparison with other approaches, have been adjusted. Based on the above processing, the most significant temporal inhomogeneities were eliminated, and China’s most homogeneous surface air temperature series has thus been created. Results show that the inhomogeneity testing captured well the most important change of the stations, and the adjusted dataset is more reliable than ever. This suggests that the adjusted temperature dataset has great value of decreasing the uncertaities in the study of observed climate change in China.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Alexandersson, H., 1986: A homogeneity test applied to precipitation data.J. Climatol.,6, 661–675.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bradley, R. S., P. M. Kelly, P. D. Jones, C. M. Goodess, and H. F. Diaz, 1985: A Climatic Data Bank for Northern Hemisphere Land Areas, 1851–1980. Tech. Rep. No.TRO17, US Depertment of Energy, WashingtonDc, 335pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • China Meteorology Administration, 1979:Surfce Meteorological Observation Rules. China Meteorological Press, Beijing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Conrad, V., and C. Pollak, 1950:Methods in Climatology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 459pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Easterling, D. R., and T. C. Peterson, 1995: A new method for detecting and adjusting for undocumented discontinuities in climatological time series.International Journal Climatol.,15, 369–377.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Føland, E. J., and coauthors, 1996: Manual for Operational Correction of Nordic Precipitation Data. DNMI-Reports 24:96 KLIMA, 66pp.

  • Heino, R., 1996: Metadata and their role in homogeneity.Proceedings of the First Seminar for Homogenization of Surface Climatological Data., Budapest, Hungary 6–12 October, 1996, 5–8.

  • Li Qingxiang, Liu Xiaoning, Zhang Hongzheng, and Tu Qipu, 2003: Homogeneity study of in situ observational climate series.Meteorological Science and Technology,31, 1–10. (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu Xiaoning and Li Qingxiang, 2003: Research of the inhomogeneity test of climate data series in China.Acta Meteorologica Sinica.,17, 492–502.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mielke, P. W., 1991: The application of multivariate permutation methods based on distance functions in the earth sciences.Earth-Sci. Rev.,31, 55–71.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, T. C., and D. R. Easterling, 1994: Creation of homogeneous composite climatological reference series.International Journal of Climatology,14, 671–679.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, T. C., and coauthors, 1998: Homogeneity adjustments of in situ atmospheric climate data: A review.International Journal of Climatolog,18, 1493–1517.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Solow, A., 1987: Testing for climatic change: An application of the two-phase regression model.J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,26, 1401–1405.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yan Zhongwei, Yang Chi, and P. Jones, 2001: Influence of inhomogeneity on the estimation of mean and extreme temperature trends in Beijing and Shanghai.Adv. Atmos. Sci.,18, 309–321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhai Panmao, and R. E. Eskridge, 1996: Analysis of inhomogeneities in radiosonde and humidity time series.International Journal of Climatology,9, 884–894.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhai Panmao, 1997: Some gross errors and biases in the China’s historical sonde data.Acta Meteorologica Sinica,55, 563–572.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Li Qingxiang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Li, Q., Liu, X., Zhang, H. et al. Detecting and adjusting temporal inhomogeneity in Chinese mean surface air temperature data. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 21, 260–268 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02915712

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02915712

Key words

Navigation