Ricerca in clinica e in laboratorio

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 269–274 | Cite as

The cryoglobulinemic syndrome

  • Fulvio Invernizzi
  • Francesco Saccardo
  • Massimo Galli
  • Giuseppe Monti
  • Carlo Zanussi


The clinical and immunochemical classification of 376 patients with cryoglobulinemia is presented. In 141 cases (37.5%) the syndrome was considered idiopathic. Among the secondary forms, chronic liver diseases and connective tissue diseases shared most frequently mixed cryoglobulins (18.8 and 15.4% of cases, respectively). Another common association was that with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia: cryoglobulins were found in 20% of these patients. In 5 patients (2 with the essential form and 3 with cryoglobulinemia secondary to Waldenström’s disease) a CĪ-inhibitor deficiency was discovered; the complement profile was characteristic of the acquired type and episodes of angioedema occurred. Studying the clinical course of 71 cases of essential mixed cryoglobulinemia followed-up for 4–20 years we concluded that the evolution of type II and type III cryoglobulinemias is different because that of type II seems to have a more severe course and may differentiate in a lymphoproliferative disorder; the immunochemical type of cryoglobulins seems therefore to have a prognostic significance. Because of the considerable overlap in the distribution of immunochemical types among the clinical subsets, a mixed classification (both biochemical and clinical) is proposed.


Complement Cryoglobulinemia Glomerulonephritis Lymphoproliferative diseases Myeloma Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fulvio Invernizzi
    • 1
  • Francesco Saccardo
    • 1
  • Massimo Galli
    • 2
  • Giuseppe Monti
    • 3
  • Carlo Zanussi
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinica Medica IIUniversità degli Studi di Milano Padiglione Sacco, Ospedale PoliclinicoMilanoItalia
  2. 2.Clinica delle Malattie InfettiveUniversità degli Studi di MilanoItalia
  3. 3.Divisione di Medicina IOspedale di SaronnoItalia

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