Viral interference and interferon


Viral interference is a phenomenon for which a cell infected by a virus becomes resistant toward a second outcoming infection by a superinfectant virus. Even though other mechanisms are known, it can be assumed that most cases of viral interference occurring in natural conditions are mediated by interferon, a low molecular weight protein produced by the infected cell in response to a stimulus provided by viral nucleic acid(s). The interferon produced by a cell can migrate to other cells not yet involved by the spreading infection, transmitting to them the antiviral-resistant state. Available evidence indicates that interferon acts by inducing the production of a second cellular protein, called antiviral protein, which is directly responsible for the antiviral state through some alterations of the cellular, virus-directed, proteosynthetic system. In addition to the antiviral activity, the interferon system can affect the growth of several non-viral organisms and that of tumour cells; rather controversial effects have been shown also on the immune responses; the mechanisms underlying these effects are still nuclear. However a relationship to the specific immune system is suggested also by the finding that interferon can be liberated by sensitized T-lymphocytes following antigenic stimulus. Activation of the interferon system can be operatedin vitro andin vivo also by several non-viral substances of various nature, such as nucleic acids, polysaccharides, aromatic amines, etc. This fact, considering that interferon has been shown to play a critical role on the mechanisms of recovery from viral infections, may open new perspectives for their possible prophylactic and/or therapeutic use in viral diseases. This problem can be approached also by administering exogenous interferon. Encouraging preliminary results have so far been obtained either with interferon or its inducers. However, several problems of various nature have to be resolved before considering the actual use of interferon system as a wide range antiviral drug in natural viral diseases of man.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1)

    Allen L. B., Eagle N. C., Hoffmann J. H., Schuman D. A., Mayer R. B., Sidewell R. W.: Enhancement of Interferon Antiviral Action in L Cells by Cyclic Nucleotides — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)146, 580, 1974.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2)

    Anfinsen C. B., Bose S., Corley L., Gurari Rotman D.: Partial Purification of Human Interferon by Affinity Chromatography — Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)71, 3139, 1974; and Personal Communication, 1974.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3)

    Baron S.: Relationship of Interferon and Temperature to Virulence of Newcastle Disease Virus — In:Hanson R. P. (Ed.): Newcastle Disease Virus: an Evolving Pathogen. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1964; p. 205.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4)

    Baron S.: Mechanism of Recovery from Viral Infection — Advanc. Virus Res.10, 39, 1965.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5)

    Baron S.: The Biological Significance of the Interferon System — In:Finter N. B. (Ed.): Interferon. North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1966; p. 268.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6)

    Baron S.: Host Defences during Virus Infection — In:Heath R. B., Waterson A. P. (Eds): Modern Trends in Medical Virology. Butterworths, London, 1967; p. 77.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7)

    Baron S., Bogomolova N. N., Billiau A., Levy H. B., Buckler C. E., Stern R., Naylor R.: Induction of Interferon by Preparations of Synthetic Single Stranded RNA — Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)64, 67, 1969.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8)

    Billiau A., Joniau M., de Somer P.: Mass Production of Human Interferon in Diploid Cells Stimulated by Poly I:C — J. gen. Virol.19, 1, 1973.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9)

    Billiau A., Schonne E., Eyckmans L., de Somer P.: Interferon Induction and Resistance to Virus Infection in Mice Infected withBrucella abortus — Infect. Immunity2, 698, 1970.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10)

    Bocci V., Russi M., Rita G.: Recovery and Identification of Interferon in the Rabbit Urine — Experienta (Basel)23, 309, 1967.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11)

    Braun W., Levy H. B.: Interferon Preparations as Modifiers of Immune Responses — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)141, 769, 1972.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12)

    Buckler C. E.: Personal Communication, 1974.

  13. 13)

    Buckler C. E., Baron S., Levy H. B.: Interferon: Lack of Detectable Uptake by Cells — Science152, 80, 1966.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14)

    Cantell K.: Preparation of Human Leukocyte Interferon — Symp. Series Immunobiol. Standard.14, 6, 1970.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15)

    Carter W. A., Levy H. B.: Ribosomes: Effect of Interferon on Their Interaction with Rapidly Labelled Cellular and Viral RNA’s — Science155, 1254, 1969.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16)

    Cassingena R., Chany C., Vignal M., Suarez H., Estrada S., Lazar P.: Use of Monkey-Mouse Hybrid Cells for the Study of the Cellular Regulation of Interferon Production and Action — Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)68, 580, 1971.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17)

    Chany C., Fournier F., Rousset S.: Interferon Regulatory System — Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.173, 505, 1970.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18)

    de Somer P., Prinzi E. A., Denys P., Schonne E.: Mechanism of Action of Interferon. Relationship with Viral Ribonucleic Acid — Virology16, 63, 1962.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19)

    Dianzani F., Baron S.: (In Press).

  20. 20)

    Dianzani F., Baron S., Levy H. B., Buckler C. E.: Mechanisms of Enhancement of Polynucleotide Induction of Interferon — Symp. Series Immunobiol. Standard.14, 203, 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21)

    Dianzani F., Buckler C. E., Baron S.: Effect of Cycloheximide on the Antiviral Action of Interferon — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)130, 519, 1969.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22)

    Dianzani F., Gagnoni S., Buckler C. E., Baron S.: Studies of the Induction of Interferon System by Nonreplicating Newcastle Disease Virus — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)133, 324, 1970.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23)

    Dianzani F., Gagnoni S., Cantagalli P.: Studies on the Potentiating Effect of DEAE-Dextran on Interferon Production Induced by Double-Stranded Synthetic Polynucleotides — Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.173, 727, 1970.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24)

    Dianzani F., Neri P., Zucca M.: Effect of Dibutyryl-Cyclic-AMP on Interferon Production by Cells Treated with Viral or Nonviral Inducers — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)140, 1375, 1972.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25)

    Dianzani F., Pugliese A., Baron S.: Induction of Interferon by Nonreplicating Single-Stranded RNA Virus — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)145, 428, 1974.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26)

    Dianzani F., Rita G., Cantagalli P., Gagnoni S.: Effect of DEAE-Dextran on Interferon Production and Protective Effect in Mice Treated with the Double-Stranded Polynucleotide Complex Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid — J. Immunol.102, 24, 1969.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27)

    Dubuy H. G., Johnson M. L., Buckler C. E., Baron S.: Relationship between Dose Size and Dose Interval of Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid and Interferon Hyporesponsiveness in Mice — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)135, 340, 1970.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28)

    Emodi G., Just M.: Interferon Response of Children with Congenital Cytomegalovirus Disease — Acta paediat. scand.63, 183, 1974.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29)

    Falcoff F., Perez-Bercoff R.: Interferons humains induitsin vitro par des polynucléotides synthétiques — Biochim. Biophys. Acta (Amst.)174, 108, 1969.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30)

    Fantes K. H., O’Neill C. F., Mason P. J.: Purification of Chick Interferon — Biochem. J.91, 20P, 1964.

  31. 31)

    Field A. K., Tyell A. A., Lampson G. P., Hilleman M. R.: Inducers of Interferon and Host Resistance. II. Multistranded Synthetic Polynucleotide Complexes — Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)58, 1004, 1969.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32)

    Finter N. B.: Protection of Mice by Interferon against Systemic Virus Infections — Brit. med. J.2, 981, 1964.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33)

    Freshman M. M., Merigan T. C., Remington J. S., Brownlee I. E.:In Vitro andin Vivo Antiviral Action of an Interferon-Like Substance Induced byToxoplasma gondii — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)123, 862, 1966.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34)

    Friedman R. M.: Interferon Binding: the First Step in Establishment of Antiviral Activity — Science156, 1760, 1967.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35)

    Friedman R. M., Fantes K. H., Levy H. B., Carter W. A.: Interferon Action on Parental Semliki Forest Virus RNA — J. Virol.1, 1168, 1967.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36)

    Friedman R. M., Metz D. H., Esteban R. M., Towell R., Ball L. A., Kerr I. M.: Mechanism of Interferon Action Inhibition of Viral Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Translation in L Cells Extract — J. Virol.10, 1184, 1972.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37)

    Friedman R. M., Pastan I.: Interferon and Cyclic-3′,5′-Adenosine Monophosphate: Potentiation of Antiviral Activity — Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun.36, 735, 1969.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38)

    Friedman R. M., Sonnabend A.: Inhibition by Interferon of Production of Double-Stranded Semliki Forest Virus Ribonucleic Acid — Nature (Lond.)206, 532, 1965.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39)

    Galin M. A., Weissenbacher M.: Invited Discussion: Interferon and Ocular Viral Disease — J. gen. Physiol.56, 249, 1970.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40)

    Gazdar A. F.: Enhancement of Tumor Growth Rate by Interferon Inducers — J. nat. Cancer Inst.49, 1435, 1972.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41)

    Gelboin H. V., Levy H. B.: Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid Inhibits Chemically Induced Tumorigenesis in Mouse Skin — Science167, 205, 1970.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42)

    Gisler R. H., Lindahl P., Gresser I.: Effects of Interferon on Antibody Synthesisin Vitro — J. Immunol.113, 438, 1974.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43)

    Green J. A., Cooperband S. R., Kibricks S.: Immune Specific Induction of Interferon Production in Cultures of Human Blood Lymphocytes — Science164, 1415, 1969.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44)

    Gresser I., Berman L., de Thé G., Brouty-Boyé D., Coppey J., Falcoff E.: Interferon and Murine Leukemia. V. Effect of Interferon Preparations on the Evolution of Rauscher Disease in Mice — J. nat. Cancer Inst.41, 505, 1968.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45)

    Gresser I., Bourall C.: Antitumor Effects of Interferon Preparations in Mice — J. nat. Cancer Inst.45, 365, 1970.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46)

    Gresser I., Coppey E., Falcoff F., Fontaine D.: Interferon and Murine Leukemia. I. Inhibitory Effect of Interferon Preparations on Development of Friend Leukemia in Mice — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)124, 84, 1967.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47)

    Grossberg S. E.: The Interferons and Their Inducers: Molecular and Therapeutic Considerations — New Engl. J. Med.287, 13, 1972.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48)

    Guerra R., Frezzotti R., Bonanni R., Dianzani F., Rita G.: A Preliminary Study on Treatment of HumanHerpes simplex Keratitis with an Interferon Inducer — Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.173, 823, 1970.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49)

    Hanna L., Merigan T. C., Jawetz E.: Effect of Interferon on TRIC Agents and Induction of Interferon by TRIC Agents — Amer. J. Ophthal.63, 1115, 1967.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. 50)

    Havell E. A., Vilcek J.: Production of High Titred Interferon in Cultures of Human Diploid Cells — Antimicrobial Agents Chemiot.2, 476, 1972.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51)

    Ho M.: Interferon-Like Viral Inhibition in Rabbits after Intravenous Administration of Endotoxin — Science146, 1472, 1964.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. 52)

    Ho M., Postic B.: Renal Excretion of Interferon — Nature (Lond.)214, 1230, 1967a.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. 53)

    Hopps H. E., Kohno S., Kohno M., Smadel J. E.: Production of Interferon in Tissue Cultures Infected withRickettsia tsutsugamushi — Bact. Proc. 1964; p. 115.

  54. 54)

    Huang K. Y., Schultz W. W., Gordon F. B.: Interferon Induced byPlasmodium berghei — Science162, 123, 1968.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55)

    Isaacs A., Baron S., Allison A. C.: Quoted byIsaacs A.: Interferon — Sci. Amer.204, 51, 1961.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56)

    Isaacs A., Lindenmann J.: Virus Interference. I. The Interferon — Proc. roy. Soc. B147, 258, 1957.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57)

    Isaacs A., Portfield J. S., Baron S.: The Influence of Oxygenation on Virus Growth. II. Effect on the Antiviral Action of Interferon — Virology14, 450, 1961.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. 58)

    Jahiel R. I.: Interferon and Interferon Inducers in Protozoan Infection — J. gen. Physiol.56, 227S, 1970.

  59. 59)

    Janssen R. J., Gerone P. J., Chappel W. A.: Interference withCoxiella burnetii Infections of Guinea-Pigs by Influenza A Virus — J. Bact.89, 1628, 1965.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60)

    Jenkin H. M., Lu Y. K.: Induction of Interferon by the Bour Strain ofTrachoma in HeLa 229 Cells — Amer. J. Ophthal.63, 1110, 1967.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. 61)

    Jensen M. M.: Transitory Impairment of Interferon Production in Stressed Mice — J. infect. Dis.118, 230, 1968.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. 62)

    Jensen M. M.: Transitory Impairment of Interferon Production in Serotonin-Treated Mice — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)128, 174, 1968.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. 63)

    Johnson H. M., Smith B. G., Baron S.: Inhibition of the Primaryin Vitro Antibody Response of Mouse Spleen Cells by Interferon Preparations — J. int. Res. Commun.2, 1616, 1974.

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64)

    Joklik W. K., Merigan T. C.: Concerning the Mechanism of Action of Interferon — Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)56, 558, 1966.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. 65)

    Kerr I. M., Martin E. M.: Virus Protein Synthesis in Animal Cell-Free System: Nature of the Products Synthesized in Response to Ribonucleic Acid of Encephalomyocarditis Virus — J. Virol.7, 438, 1971.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. 66)

    Kilbourne E. D., Smart K. M., Pokorny B. A.: Inhibition by Cortisone of the Synthesis and Action of Interferon — Nature (Lond.)190, 650, 1961.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. 67)

    Levine S.: Effect of Actinomycin D and Puromycin Dihydrochloride on Action of Interferon — Virology24, 586, 1964.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. 68)

    Levy H. B., Asofsky R., Riley F., Garapin A., Cantor H., Adamson R.: Mechanism of the Antitumor Action of Poly I: Poly C — Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.173, 640, 1970.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. 69)

    Levy H. B., Baer G., Gibbs C. F., Jadarola M., London W., Rice J. M.: Induction of Interferon in Non-Human Primates by a Nuclease-Resistant Polyriboinosinic-Polyribocytidylic Acid Complex — J. int. Res. Commun.2, 1643, 1974.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. 70)

    Levy H. B., Law L. W., Rabson A. S.: Inhibition of Tumor Growth by Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid — Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)62, 357, 1969.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. 71)

    Levy H. B., Riley F. L.: Effect of Interferon Treatment on Cellular Messenger RNA — Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)70, 3815, 1973.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. 72)

    Lockart R. Z., Jr.: The Necessity for Cellular RNA and Protein Synthesis for Viral Inhibition Resulting from Interferon — Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun.15, 513, 1964.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. 73)

    Magrassi F.: Studi sull’infezione e sull’immunità da virus erpetico. III. Rapporti tra infezione e superinfezione di fronte ai processi immunitari: sulla possibilità di profondamente modificare il decorso e gli esiti del processo infettivo già in atto — Z. Hyg. Infekt.-Kr.117, 573, 1935.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74)

    Marcus P. I., Carver D. H.: Intrinsic Interference: a New Type of Viral Interference — J. Virol.1, 334, 1967.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. 75)

    Marcus P. I., Salb J. B.: Molecular Basis of Interferon Action: Inhibition of Viral RNA Translation — Virology30, 502, 1966.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. 76)

    Mayer G. D., Krueger R. F.: Tylorone Hydrochloride: Mode of Action — Science169, 1214, 1970.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. 77)

    Merigan T. C., Hanna L.: Characteristics of Interferon Inducedin Vitro andin Vivo by a TRIC Agent — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)122, 421, 1966.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. 78)

    Merigan T. C., Reed S. E., Hallt Tyrrel D. A.: Inhibition of Respiratory Virus Infection by Locally Applied Interferon — Lancet1, 563, 1973.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. 79)

    Nathanson N., Bodian D.: Experimental Poliomyelitis Following Intramuscular Virus Injection. II. Viremia and the Effect of Antibody — Bull. Hopk. Hosp.188, 320, 1961.

    Google Scholar 

  80. 80)

    Nordlund J., Wolff S., Levy H. B.: Inhibition of Biologic Activity of Poly I: Poly C by Human Plasma — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)133, 439, 1970.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. 81)

    Oman M. N., Rowe W. P., Black P. H.: Studies of Adenovirus-SV 40 Hybrid Viruses. VI. Differential Effects of Interferon on SV 40 and Adenovirus T Antigen Formation in Cell Infected with SV 40 Virus, Adenoviruses and Adenovirus SV 40 Hybrid Viruses — Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)57, 941, 1967.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82)

    Panusarn C., Stanley E. D., Dirda V., Rubenis M., Jackson G. G.: Prevention of Illness fromRhinovirus Infection by a Topical Interferon Inducer — New Engl. J. Med.291, 57, 1974.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. 83)

    Rhim J. S., Huebner R. J.: Comparison of the Antitumor Effect of Interferon Inducers — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)136, 524, 1971.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. 84)

    Rytel M. W., Jones T. C.: Induction of Interferon in Mice Infected withToxoplasma gondii — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)123, 859, 1966.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. 85)

    Salvin S. B., Youngner J. S., Lederer W. H.: Migration Inhibitory Factor and Interferon in the Circulation of Mice with Delayed Hypersensitivity — Infection and Immunity7, 68, 1973.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. 86)

    Samuel C. E., Joklik W. K.: A Protein Synthesizing System from Interferon-Treated Cells that Discriminates between Cellular and Viral Messenger — Virology58, 476, 1974.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. 87)

    Sipe J. D., de Maeyer Guignard J., Fauconnier B., de Maeyer E.: Purification of Mouse Interferon by Affinity Chromatography on a Solid Phase Immunoadsorbent — Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)70, 1037, 1973.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. 88)

    Sonnabend J. A., Martin E. M., Mecs E., Fantes K. H.: The Effect of Interferon on the Synthesis and Activity of an RNA Polymerase Isolated from Chick Cells Infected with Semliki Forest Virus — J. gen. Virol.1, 41, 1967.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. 89)

    Stanton G. J., May D. C.: Interferon Inhibitors in Human Serum — Personal Communication by ISM I A/37, June 1974.

  90. 90)

    Stein A., Loebenstein G.: Induction of Resistance to Tobacco Mosaic Virus by Poly I: Poly C in Plants — Nature (Lond.)226, 363, 1970.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. 91)

    Stinebring W. R., Youngner J. S.: Patterns of Interferon Appearance in Mice Infected withBacteria of Bacterial Endotoxin — Nature (Lond.)204, 712, 1964.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. 92)

    Taylor J.: Inhibition of Interferon Action by Actinomycin — Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun.14, 447, 1964.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. 93)

    Tolentino P., Dianzani F., Zucca M., Giacchino R.: Studies on Interferon Response by Lymphocytes from Children with Chronic Hepatitis — (In Press).

  94. 94)

    Tommila V.: Treatment of Dendritic Keratitis with Interferon — Acta opthal. (Kbh.)41, 478, 1963.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. 95)

    Vilcek J.: Interferon — Springer-Verlag, Wien, 1969; p. 1.

    Google Scholar 

  96. 96)

    Vilcek J., Jahiel R. I.: Action of Interferon and Its Inducers against Non Viral Infectious Agents — Arch. intern. Med.126, 69, 1970.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. 97)

    Wheelock E. F.: Interferon-Like Virus Inhibitor Induced in Human Leukocytes by Phytohemagglutinin — Science149, 310, 1965.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. 98)

    Wheelock E. F., Larke R. P. B.: Efficacy of Interferon in the Treatment of Mice with Established Friend Virus Leukemia — Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)127, 230, 1968.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. 99)

    Worthington M., Baron S.: Role of Non-Specific and Immune Factors during Viral Infection — In:Braun W., Ungar J. (Eds): Non-Specific Factors Influencing Host Resistance. Karger, Basel, 1973; p. 412.

    Google Scholar 

  100. 100)

    Youngner J. S., Salvin S. B.: Production and Properties of Migration Inhibitory Factor and Interferon in the Circulation of Mice with Delayed Hypersensitivity — J. Immunol.111, 1914, 1973.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ferdinando Dianzani.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dianzani, F. Viral interference and interferon. La Ricerca in Clin. Lab. 5, 196–213 (1975).

Download citation


  • Antitumour therapy
  • Antiviral therapy
  • Interferon
  • Recovery from viral infections
  • T-lymphocyte activation
  • Viral interference