Journal of African American Men

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 7–18 | Cite as

The white supremacy continuum of images for black men

  • Billy HawkinsEmail author


Mass Medium Religious Leader National Basketball Association White Supremacy Black Athlete 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Attile, M. & Blackwood, M. (1986). Black women and representation. In C. Brundson (Ed.),Films for women, (pp. 202–208). London: British Film Institute.Google Scholar
  2. Berger, J. (1985).Ways of seeing London: British Broad-casting Corp. & Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  3. Bogle, D. (1989).Toms, coons, mulattoes, mammies, and bucks: An interpretive history of blacks in American films. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  4. Boskin, J. (1988). Sambo and other male images in popular culture. In J. C. Smith (Ed.),Images of blacks in American culture: A reference guide to information sources, (pp. 257–272). New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bourne, S. C. (1991). The African American image in American cinema.Black Scholar, 21 (2), 12–19.Google Scholar
  6. Brantlinger, P. (1990).Crusoe’s footprints: Cultural studies in Britain and America. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, T. (1995).Black lies, white lies: The truth according to Tony Brown. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Cohn, L. (1991, May 17). Tyson-Holyfield: The “bad” guy will win.San Francisco Chronicle, Sec. D, p. 5. col 1.Google Scholar
  9. Colle, R. D. (1968). Negro image in the mass media: A case study in social change.Journalism Quarterly, 45, 55–61.Google Scholar
  10. Cosby, C. O. (1994).Television’s imageable influences. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  11. Duncan, M. C. (1990). Sports photographs and sexual difference: Images of women and men in the 1984 and 1988 Olympic Games.Sociology of Sport Journal, 7 (1), 22–43.Google Scholar
  12. Edmonds, A. O. (1995). Joe Louis: May 13, 1914—April 12, 1983: In D. L. Porter (Ed.),African American sports greats: A biographical dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  13. Elkins, S. M. (1959).Slavery: A problem in American institutional & intellectual life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  14. Entman, R. (1990). Racism and local TV news.Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7 (4), 332–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gibbs, N. (1994, November 14). Death and deceit.Time, 144(20), 43–48.Google Scholar
  16. Gilmore, A. T. (1975).Bad nigger!: The national impact of Jack Johnson. New York: Kennikat Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hall, R. E. (1993). Clowns, buffoons, and gladiators: Media portrayals of African American men.Journal of Men’s Studies, 1(3), 239–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hall, S. (1981). Television as expression of ideology.Communication Research Trends, 2 (3), 5–6.Google Scholar
  19. Hartmann, P. & Husband, C. (1974).Racism and the mass media. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  20. Holyfield vs Tyson. (1997, June 28).San Francisco Chronicle, Sec. A, p. 20, col. 1.Google Scholar
  21. Jhally, S. & Lewis, J. (1992).Enlightened racism: The Cosby Show, audiences, and the myth of the American dream. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  22. Jordon, W. D. (1968).White over black: American attitudes toward the negro, 1550–1812. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  23. Lacayo, R. (1994, November 14). Death and deceit.Time, 144(20), 46–47.Google Scholar
  24. Lane, R. (1996, December 16). Nice guys finish first.Forbes, 158(14), 236–242.Google Scholar
  25. Leab D. J. (1975).From sambo to superspade: The black experience in motion pictures. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  26. Lester, P. & Smith, R. (1990). African American photo-coverage inLife, Newsweek and Time, 1937–1988.Journalism Quarterly, 67, 128–136.Google Scholar
  27. Lambert, V. (1965). Negro exposure inLook’s editorial content.Journalism Quarterly, 42, 657–659.Google Scholar
  28. Miller, C. (1996). The representation of the black male in film [On-line]. Available: Scholar
  29. O’Hara, M. (1997). Rivalry something special to boxing.Detroit News, Sec. D, p. 1, col. 4.Google Scholar
  30. Page, H. E. (1997). “Black male” imagery and media containment of African American men.American Anthropologist, 99(1), 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pieterse, J. N. (1992).White on black: Images of Africa and blacks in western popular culture. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Querrero, E. (1995). The black man on our screens and the empty space of representation.Callaloo, 18 (2), 395–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Reddick, L. D. (1966). The negro as southerner and American. In C. G. Sellers (Ed.),The southerner as American. New York: E. P. Dutton.Google Scholar
  34. Rhoden, W. C. (1996, November 9). A modern morality play, in 12 rounds.New York Times, Sec. A, p. 31, col. 1.Google Scholar
  35. Ross, K. (1996).Black and white media: Black images in popular film and television. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  36. Sentman, M. A. (1983). Black and white: Disparity in coverage byLife magazine from 1937 to 1972.Journalism Quarterly, 60, 501–508.Google Scholar
  37. Smith, W. (1945, November 3). Glad of opportunity and will try to make good.The Pittsburgh Courier, 36(45), p. 1.Google Scholar
  38. Stempel, G. G. (1971). Visibility of blacks in news and news-picture magazines.Journalism Quarterly, 48, 337–339.Google Scholar
  39. Taylor, P. (1997, December 15). The race card.Sports Illustrated, 87(24), 70–71.Google Scholar
  40. Twenty-five Largest Magazines in the U.S. (1995, May 8).Advertising Age, 66(19).Google Scholar
  41. Tygiel, J. (1983).Baseball’s great experiment: Jackie Robinson and his legacy. New York: Random House Press.Google Scholar
  42. Verdi, B. (1996, November 11). Holyfield gives boxing a shot of decency.Chicago Tribune, Sec. 3, p. 1, col. 2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of GeorgiaAthens

Personalised recommendations