Skip to main content
Log in

Evaluation of antioxidant properties of berries

  • Published:
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The present paper focuses on assessing the levels of various enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in selected berries of Indian sub-continent viz., gooseberry, grapes, orange and tomato. This study has revealed that orange, tomato and grapes possess predominant quantities of enzymatic antioxidants namely SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase respectively. The levels of antioxidants analyzed namely reduced glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin A were maximal in grapes, orange and tomato respectively. All the extracts of berries included in the present study inhibited iron inducedin vitro lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes, the extend of inhibition being highest for gooseberry and orange compared to tomato and grapes which could be attributed to their in-built antioxidant system.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Laloraya, M., Kumar, G.P. and Laloraya, M.M. (1989) A possible role of superoxide anion radical in the process of blastocyst implantation in Musmusculus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commn. 161, 762–772.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Verma, S., Kumar, G.P., Laloraya, M. and Singh, A. (1990) Activation of iodine into a free radical intermediate by superoxide, a physiologically significant step in the iodination of tyrosine. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 170, 1026–1034.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Parihar, M.S., Dubey, A.K., Javeri, T. and Prakash, P. (1995) Lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid status in respiratory organ of male and female fresh water fish, Heteropneustes fossils exposed to temperature increase. Samp. Biochem. Physiol. 112, 309–313.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Sies, H. (1993) Strategies of antioxidant defense. Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 213–221.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Mohammad, A. (2002) Oxidative stress and experimental carcinogenesis. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 40, 656–667.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Wiseman, H. and Halliwell, B. (1996) Damage to DNA by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: role in inflammatory disease and progression to cancer. Biochem. J. 313, 17–29.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Uday Bandyopadhyay, Dipak Das and Ranajit Banerjee, K. (1990) Reactive oxygen species: Oxidative damage and pathogenesis. Curr. Sci. 77, 658–666.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Van Acker, Koymans, L.M.H. and Bast, A. (1993) Molecular pharmacological importance of vitamin E, structural aspects of NADP free radical. Biol. Med. 5, 311–328.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Stadtman, E.R. (1992) Protein oxidation and ageing. Science 257, 1220–1224.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Blot, W.J., Li, J.Y., Taylor, P.R., Guo, W., Dawsey, S., Wang, G.Q., Yang, C.S., Zheng, S.F., Gail, M. and Li, G.Y. (1993) Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: Supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, Cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J. Natl. Cancer. Inst. 85, 1483–1492.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Hudson, B.J.F. and Lewis, J.I. (1991) Polyhydroxy flavanoids—antioxidants for edible oils. Food chem. 14, 45–81.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Rao, C.V., Rivenson, A., Simi, B. and Reddy, B.S. (1995) Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by dietary curcumin, a naturally occurring plant phenolic compound. Cancer Res. 55, 259–266.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Harborne, J.B. and Mabry, H. (1975) Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy. Ultraviolet, visible and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of flavanoids. In: The flavanoids, Eds. Markhan, K.R. and Mabry, T.J. Chapman and Hall, London. 48–60.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Halliwell, B. (1994) Antioxidants and human disease—A general introduction. Nutr. Reviews. 55, 522–544.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Karthikeyan, J. and Rani, P. (2003) Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in selected Piper species. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 41, 135–140.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Das, K., Samanta, L. and Chainy, G.B.N. (2000) A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase using nitrite formation by superoxide radicals. Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys. 37, 201–204.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Sinha, A.K. (1972) Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal. Biochem. 47, 389–394.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Addy, S.K. and Goodman, R.N. (1972) Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in apple leaves inoculated with a virulent or an avirulent strain for Ervinia amylovora. Ind. phytopath. 25, 575–579.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Rotruck, J.T., Pope, A.L. and Ganther, H.E., Swanson, A.B., Hafeman, D.G., and Hoekstra, W.G. (1973) Selenium: Biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 179, 588–590.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Vines, H.M. and Oberbacher, M.F. (1965) Response of oxidation and phosphorylation in citrus mitochondria to arsenate. Nature. 206, 319–320.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Balinsky, D. and Bernstein, R.E. (1963) The purification and properties of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from human erythrocytes. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 67, 313–315.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Boyne, A.F. and Ellman, G.L. (1972) A methodology for analysis of tissue sulfhydryl components. Anal. Biochem., 46 (2), 639–53.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Sadasivam, S. and Manickam, A. (1997) Vitamins. In: Biochemical methods, Eds. Sadasivam, S. and Manickam, A. New Age International (P) Limited, New Delhi, 2nd Edition, 185–186.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Varley, H., Gowenlock, A.H. and Bell, M. (1984) Vitamins. In: Practical clinical biochemistry, Eds. Varley, H. and Gowenlock, A.H. William Heinemann medical books Ltd., London Vol II, 215–217.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Dodge, J.T., Mitchell, C. and Hanaban, D.J. (1963) The preparation and chemical characteristics of Hb-free ghosts of human erythrocytes. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 100, 119–130.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Quist, K.H. (1980) Regulation of erythrocyte membrane shape by calcium ion. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 92, 631–637.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Buege, J.A. and Aust, S.D. (1978) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol. 52, 302–305.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1989) Comparisons among means. In: Statistical methods, Eds. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. Iowa State University press, Ames, Iowa 500 10. 8th edition, 256–257.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Shylesh, B.A. and Padikkala, H. (1999) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Emilia sonchifolia. Fitoterapia. 71, 275–289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Tripathi, Y.B., Pandey, E. and Dubey, G.P. (1999) Antioxidant property of Hypericum perforatum Linn. of Indian origin and its comparison with established medhya rasayanas of ayurvedic medicine. Curr. Sci. 76, 27–29.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Hertwig, B. Steb, P. and Feierabend, J. (1999) Light dependence of catalase synthesis and degradation in leaves and the influence of interfering stress conditions. Plant physiol. 100, 1547–1553.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Nouchi, I. (1993) Changes in antioxidant levels and activities of related enzyme in rice leaves exposed to ozone. Soil. Sci. Plant. Nutr. 39, 309–320.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Sies, H. (1991) Oxidative stress, oxidant and antioxidants—Antioxidant activity of fruit exudate and C-methylated dihydrochalcones from Myrica Gale. Planta. Med. 61, 515–518.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Smith, I.K., Kendall, A.C., Keys, A.J., Turner, J.C. and Lea, P.J. (1985) The regulation of the biosynthesis of GSH in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plant Sci. 41, 11–17.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Price, A., Lucas, P.W. and Lea, D.J. (1990) Age-dependent damage and glutathione metabolism in ozone fumigated barley: A leaf section approach. J. Exp. Bot. 41, 1309–1317.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Ruegsegger, A., Schmuttz, D. and Brund, C. (1990) Regulation of glutathione biosynthesis by cadmium in Pisum sativum L. Plant physiol. 93, 1579–1584.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Foyer, C. (1993) Ascorbic acid. In: Antioxidants in Higher plants. Eds. Alscher, R.G. and Hess, J.L. CRL Press, Boca Raton, pp. 31–58.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Hess, J.L. (1993) Vitamin E, α-tocopherol. InAntioxidants in higher plants, Eds. Alscher, R.G. and Hess, J.L. CRC press, Boca Raton. p. 111–134.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Freyer, M.J. (1992) The antioxidant effect of thylakoid vitamin E (α-tocopherol). Plant cell Environ. 15, 381–392.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Tachilbana, K., Sone, S. and Tsubura, E. (1984) Stimulatory effect of vitamin A on tumouricidal activity of rat alveolar macrophages. Brit. J. Cancer 49, 343–348.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Rathore, N., John, S., Kale, M. and Bhatnagar, D. (1998) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in isoproterenol induced oxidative stress in rat tissue. Pharmacol. Res. 38, 297–303.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Poonam, Y., Sarkar, S. and Bhatnagar, D. (1997) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in erythrocyte and tissue in aged diabetic rats. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 35, 389–392.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Stanley Mainzen prince, P. and Venugopal menon, P. (1999) Antioxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia roots in experimental diabetes. J. Ethanopharmacology. 65, 277–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Goel, H.C., Prem Kumar, I. (2002) Free radical scavenging and metal chelation by Tinospora cordifolia, a possible role in radioprotection. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 40, 727–734.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Bhattacharya, A., Chatterjee, A., Ghosal, S. and Bhattacharya, S.K. (1999) Antioxidant activity of active tannoid principle of Emblica officinalis (amla). Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 37, 676–679.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. Rani.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rani, P., Unni, K.M. & Karthikeyan, J. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of berries. Indian J Clin Biochem 19, 103–110 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02894266

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02894266

Key Words

Navigation