Changes in blood catecholamine levels and ultrastructure of dog adrenal medullary cells during hemorrhagic shock

Summary

Blood catecholamine levels and ultrastructural changes in adrenal medullary cells were followed during the course of oligemic and normovolemic shock in dogs. Blood adrenaline concentration rose promptly after hemorrhage, reaching a maximum that was 10-fold greater than normal during the early period of hemorrhagic hypotension. Thereafter, adrenaline levels gradually declined until the end of the critical stage of hemorrhagic shock when the blood concentration rose to a level 8-fold that of normal. Following the critical stage, and throughout the irreversible stages of shock, adrenaline levels remained near normal. Noradrenaline, which was initially undetectable, first appeared in the impending stage of hemorrhagic hypotension and showed little change during the course of severe hemorrhagic hypotension.

Ultrastructural studies demonstrated A-cell degranulation as early as 5 min after initiation of hemorrhage. Degranulation continued throughout the impending stage of hemorrhagic hypotension and was associated with an increasing number of autophagic vacuoles containing empty vesicles. At the end of the critical stage, all A cells showed complete degranulation and degenerative hydropic change. Progression to necrosis rather than arrest or reversal of hydropic change was observed after reinfusion of blood. In contrast to the marked alterations in A cells, most N cells were morphologically unchanged.

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Correspondence to Hiroki Kajihara.

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Kajihara, H., Hirata, S. & Miyoshi, N. Changes in blood catecholamine levels and ultrastructure of dog adrenal medullary cells during hemorrhagic shock. Virchows Arch. B Cell Path. 23, 1 (1977). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02889115

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Key words

  • A-cell
  • N-cell
  • Degranulation
  • Hydropic change
  • Necrot-ic cell