Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 168–173 | Cite as

Measures of hostility as predictors of facial affect during social interaction: Evidence for construct validity

  • Beverly H. Brummett
  • Kimberly E. Maynard
  • Michael A. Babyak
  • Thomas L. Haney
  • Ilene C. Siegler
  • Michael J. Helms
  • John C. Barefoot

Abstract

We assessed the construct validity of several self-report measures and an interview-based measure of hostility (Interpersonal Hostility Assessment Technique [IHAT]) by evaluating their associations with a behavioral indicator of hostile emotions (facial expressions during social interaction). Participants in the study were 123 volunteers (44% males and 56% females) who were recruited from local community organizations. Self-report measures (Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, Rotter Interpersonal Trust Scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, and Spielberger Anger Expression Scale) were represented by factor scores reflecting Overt Hostility, Covert Hostility, and Hostile Beliefs. A canonical correlation analysis identified significant associations between a set of facial affect scores reflecting animosity and various measures of hostility. Specifically, increases in anger and disgust expressions and decreases in happy facial expressions were associated with high IHAT scores and high scores on self-report measures of Hostile Beliefs and Covert Hostility. Women were more expressive than men, especially concerning positive affect, and women had lower scores on self-report measures of Hostile Beliefs and Overt Hostility. IHAT scores were uncorrelated with any of the self-report factors which suggests the two assessment techniques are tapping different aspects of the hostility construct.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Smith TW, Gallo LC: Personality traits as risk factors for physical illness. In Baum A, Revenson T, Singer J (eds),Handbook of Health Psychology, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum (in press, 1998).Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    Barefoot JC, Lipkus IM: The assessment of anger and hostility. In Siegman AW, Smith TW (eds),Anger, Hostility, and the Heart. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994, 43–66.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Rosenman RH, Swan GE, Carmelli D: Definition, assessment, and evolution of the Type A behavior pattern. In Houston BK, Snyder CR (eds),Type A Behavior Pattern. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1988, 8–31.Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Novaco RW: Anger and its therapeutic regulation. In Chesney MA, Rosenman RH (eds),Anger and Hostility in Cardiovascular and Behavioral Disorders. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1985, 203–226.Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    Spielberger CD, Johnson EH, Russell SF, et al: The experience and expression of anger: Construction and validation of an anger expression scale. In Chesney MA, Rosenman RH (eds),Anger and Hostility in Cardiovascular and Behavioral Disorders. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985, 5–30.Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    Barefoot JC, Beckham JC, Haney TL, Siegler IC, Lipkus IM: Age differences in hostility among middle-aged and older adults.Psychology and Aging. 1993,8:3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. (7).
    Engebretson TO, Matthews KA: Dimensions of hostility in men, women, and boys: Relationships to personality and cardiovascular responses to stress.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1992,53:311–323.Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    Musante L, MacDougall JM, Dembroski TM, Costa PT: Potential for hostility and dimensions of anger.Health Psychology. 1989,8:343–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. (9).
    Friedman HS, Tucker JS, Reise SP: Personality dimensions and measures potentially relevant to health: A focus on hostility.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1995,17:245–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    Siegel JM: The measurement of anger as a multidimensional construct. In Chesney MA, Rosenman RH (eds),Anger and Hostility in Cardiovascular and Behavioral Disorders. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1985, 59–82.Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    Steinberg L, Jorgenson RS: Assessing the MMPI-based Cook-Medley hostility scale: The implications of dimensionality.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1996,70:1281–1287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    McCrae RR, Costa PT: Joint factors in self-reports and ratings: Neuroticism, extraversion, and openess to experience.Personality Individual Differences. 1983,4:245–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. (13).
    Pope MK, Smith TW, Rhodewalt F: Cognitive, behavioral, and affective correlates of the Cook and Medley hostility scale.Journal of Personality Assesment. 1990,54:501–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. (14).
    Smith TW, Sanders JD, Alexander JF: What does the Cook and Medley hostility scale measure? Affect, behavior, and attributions in the marital context.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1990,58:699–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    Giancola PR, Zeichner A: Construct validity of a competitive reaction-time aggression paradigm.Aggressive Behavior. 1995,21:199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. (16).
    Chesney MA, Ekman P, Friesen WV, Black GW, Hecker MH: Type A behavior pattern: Facial behavior and speech components.Psychosomatic Medicine, 1990,52:307–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. (17).
    Levenson RW, Ekman P, Friesen WV: Voluntary facial action generates emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity.Psychophysiology. 1990,27:363–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    Rosenman RH: The interview method of assesment of the coronaryprone behavior pattern. In Dembroski TM, Weiss SM, Shields JL, Feinleib M (eds),Coronary Prone Behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1978, 55–69.Google Scholar
  19. (19).
    Fredrickson BL, Maynard KE, Buhrman TW, et al: Hostility predicts duration of blood pressure response to anger. Society for Psychophysiological Research. Atlanta, GA: 1994.Google Scholar
  20. (20).
    Ekman P, Friesen WV:Facial Action Coding System. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc., 1978.Google Scholar
  21. (21).
    Ekman P, Levenson RW, Friesen WV: Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions.Science. 1983,221:1208–1210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. (22).
    Ekman P, Davidson RJ, Friesen WV: The Duchenne smile: Emotional expression and brain physiology II.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1990,58:342–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. (23).
    Matthews KA, Glass DC, Rosenman RH, Bortner RW: Competitive drive, Pattern A, and coronary heart disease: A further analysis of some data from the Western Collaborative Group Study.Journal of Chronic Diseases. 1977,30:489–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. (24).
    Haney TL, Maynard KE, Houseworth KE, et al: Interpersonal hostility assessment technique: Description and validation against the criterion of coronary artery disease.Journal of Personality Assessment. 1996,66:386–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. (25).
    Dembroski TM, MacDougall JM, Williams RB, Haney TL, Blumenthal JA: Components of Type A, hostility, and anger-in: Relationship to angiographic findings.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1985,51:514–522.Google Scholar
  26. (26).
    Chesney MA, Hecker M, Black GW: Coronary-prone components of Type A behavior in the WCGS: A new methodology. In Houston BK, Snyder CR (eds),Type A Behavior Pattern: Research, Theory and Intervention. New York: Wiley, 1989, 168–188.Google Scholar
  27. (27).
    Barefoot JC, Patterson JC, Haney TL, et al: Hostility in asymptomatic men with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease.American Journal of Cardiology. 1994,74:439–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. (28).
    Cook WW, Medley DM: Proposed hostility and pharasaic-virtue scales for the MMPI.Journal of Applied Psychology. 1954,38:414–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. (29).
    Smith TW: Hostility and health: Current status of a psychosomatic hypothesis.Health Psychology. 1992,11:139–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. (30).
    Barefoot JC, Dahlstrom WG, Williams RB: Hostility, XHD incidence, and total mortality: A 25 year follow-up study of 255 physicians.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1983,45:59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. (31).
    Barefoot JC, Larsen S, Lieth L, Schroll M: Hostility, incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and mortality in a sample of older Danish men and women.American Journal of Epidemiology. 1995,142:477–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. (32).
    Shekelle RB, Gale M, Ostfeld AM, Oglesby P: Hostility, risk of coronary heart disease, and mortality.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1983,45:109–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. (33).
    Miller TQ, Smith TW, Turner CW, Guijarro ML, Hallet AJ: A meta-analytic review of research on hostility and physical health.Psychological Bulletin. 1996,119:322–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. (34).
    Barefoot JC, Dodge KA, Peterson BL, Dahlstrom WG, Williams RB: The Cook—Medley hostility scale: Item content and ability to predict survival.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1989,51:46–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. (35).
    Helmers KF, Krantz DS, Howell RH, et al: Hostility and myocardial ischemia in coronary artery disease patients: Evaluation by gender and ischemic index.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1993,55:29–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. (36).
    Rotter JB: A new scale for the measurement of interpersonal trust.Journal of Personality. 1967,35:651–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. (37).
    Rotter JB: Generalized expectancies for interpersonal trust.American Psychologist. 1971,26:443–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. (38).
    Barefoot JC, Maynard KE, Beckham JC, et al: Trust, health, and longevity.Journal of Behavioral Medicine (in press, 1998).Google Scholar
  39. (39).
    Buss AH, Durkee A: An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility.Journal of Consulting Psychology. 1957,21:343–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. (40).
    Biaggio MK, Supplee K, Curtis N: Reliability and validity of four anger scales.Journal of Personality Assessment. 1981,45:639–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. (41).
    Bendig AW: Factor analytic scales of covert and overt hostility.Journal of Consulting Psychology. 1962,26:200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. (42).
    Costa PT, McCrae RR:The NEO Personality Inventory Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1985.Google Scholar
  43. (43).
    Siegman AW: Cardiovascular consequences of expressing and repressing anger. In Siegman AW, Smith TW (eds),Anger, Hostility, and the Heart. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994, 173–198.Google Scholar
  44. (44).
    Martin R, Watson D: Style of anger expression and its relation to daily experience.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 1997,23:285–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. (45).
    Dimberg U, Lundquist L: Gender differences in facial reactions to facial expressions.Journal of Biopsychology. 1990,30:151–159.Google Scholar
  46. (46).
    Hall J, Friedman HS, Harris MJ: Nonverbal cues, the Type A behavior pattern, and coronary heart disease. In Blanck PD, Buck R, Rosenthal R (eds),Nonverbal Communication in the Clinical Context. London: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1986, 144–168.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beverly H. Brummett
    • 1
  • Kimberly E. Maynard
    • 1
  • Michael A. Babyak
    • 1
  • Thomas L. Haney
    • 1
  • Ilene C. Siegler
    • 1
  • Michael J. Helms
    • 1
  • John C. Barefoot
    • 1
  1. 1.Duke University Medical CenterDurham

Personalised recommendations