Skip to main content

The effects of caffeine on blood pressure and heart rate: A review

Abstract

Concerns have been raised frequently about caffeine’s potential for increasing blood pressure (BP) and posing a risk for cardiovascular disease. This review surveys research concerning the effects of caffeine on BP and heart rate (HR). Tolerance to caffeine, family history of hypertension, borderline hypertension, and hypertension are also examined as potential moderators. Results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Experimental laboratory studies have generally found that caffeine produces acute rises in systolic and diastolic BP that are additive to any stress-induced increases. Synergistic effects which might pose a more serious risk are rarely found. Heart rate data are less consistent, possibly due to the different ways HR is measured. Tolerance to the cardiovascular effects of caffeine has reliably been reported; however, overnight abstinence may be sufficient to negate tolerance effects to most levels of caffeine ingestion in typical caffeine users. Though caffeine drinkers may exhibit acute increases in BP, the long-term effects appear to be minimal. However, persons at risk for hypertension may be more vulnerable to the BP effects of caffeine.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. (1)

    Bonham GS, Leaverton PE:Use Habits Among Adults of Cigarettes, Coffee, Aspirin, and Sleeping Pills, DHEW Publication No. (PHS) 80-1559. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  2. (2)

    Egan B: Nutritional and lifestyle approaches to the prevention and management of hypertension.Comprehensive Therapy. 1985,11:15–20.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. (3)

    Guyton AC:Textbook of Medical Physiology (8th Ed.). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  4. (4)

    Krantz DS, Manuck SB: Acute physiologic reactivity and risk of cardiovascular disease: A review and methodological critique.Psychological Bulletin. 1984,96:435–464.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. (5)

    Rall TW: Drugs used in the treatment of asthma. In Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P (eds).Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, (8th Ed.), New York: Pergamon, 1990, 618–637.

    Google Scholar 

  6. (6)

    Rall TW: Evolution of the mechanism of action of methylxanthines: From calcium mobilizers to antagonists of adenosine receptors.Pharmacologist. 1982,24:277–287.

    Google Scholar 

  7. (7)

    Dunwiddie TV: The physiological role of adenosine in the central nervous system.International Review of Neurobiology. 1985,27: 63–139.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. (8)

    Snyder SH, Sklar P: Behavioral and molecular actions of caffeine: Focus on adenosine.Journal of Psychiatric Research. 1984,18:91–106.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. (9)

    Elam M, Svensson TH, Thorén P: Locus coeruleus neurons and sympathetic nerves: Activation by cutaneous sensory afferents.Brain Research. 1986,366:254–261.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. (10)

    Robertson D, Wade D, Workman R, Woosley RL, Oats JA: Tolerance to the humoral and hemodynamic effects of caffeine in man.Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1981,67:1111–1117.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. (11)

    Curatolo PW, Robertson D: The health consequences of caffeine.Annals of Internal Medicine. 1983,98:641–653.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. (12)

    Myers MG: Effects of caffeine on blood pressure.Archives of Internal Medicine. 1988,148:1189–1193.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. (13)

    Bättig K: Coffee, cardiovascular, and behavioral effects: Current research trends.Reviews on Environmental Health. 1991,9:53–84.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. (14)

    Etherton GM, Kochar MS: Coffee: Facts and controversies.Archives of Internal Medicine. 1993,2:317–322.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. (15)

    Medeiros DM: Caffeinated beverage consumption and blood pressure in Mississippi young adults.Nutritional Reports International. 1982,26:563–568.

    Google Scholar 

  16. (16)

    Lang T, Degoulet P, Françoise A, et al: Relation between coffee drinking and blood pressure: Analysis of 6,231 subjects in the Paris region.American Journal of Cardiology. 1983,52:1238–1242.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. (17)

    Lang T, Bureau JF, Degoulet P, Salat H, Benattar C: Blood pressure, coffee, tea, and tobacco consumption: An epidemiological study in Algiers.European Heart Journal. 1983,4:602–607.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. (18)

    Miner MH, McKinney ME, Witte H, Buell JC, Eliot RS: Regular caffeine consumption: Effects on resting cardiovascular function and cardiovascular changes induced by mental challenge.Nebraska Medical Journal. 1985,70:43–48.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. (19)

    Prineas RJ, Jacobs Jr. DR, Crowe RS, Blackburn H: Coffee, tea, and VPD.Journal of Chronic Diseases 1980,33:67–72.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. (20)

    Salvaggio A, Periti M, Milano L, Zambelli C: Association between habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure levels.Journal of Hypertension. 1990,8:585–590.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. (21)

    Lewis C, Caan B, Funkhouser E, et al: Inconsistent associations of caffeine-containing beverages with blood pressure and with lipoproteins: The CARDIA study.American Journal of Epidemiology. 1993,138:502–507.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. (22)

    Periti M, Salvaggio GQ, DiMarzio L: Coffee consumption and blood pressure: An Italian study.Clinical Science. 1987,72:443–447.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. (23)

    Klatsky AL, Friedman GD, Armstrong MA: The relationship between alcoholic beverage use and other traits to blood pressure: A new Kaiser Permanente study.Circulation. 1986,4:628–636.

    Google Scholar 

  24. (24)

    Lancaster T, Muir J, Silagy C: The effects of coffee on serum lipids and blood pressure in a UK population.Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 1994,87:506–507.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. (25)

    Stensvold I, Tverdal A, Foss OP: The effect of coffee on blood lipids and blood pressure. Results from a Norwegian cross-sectional study, men and women, 40–42 years.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1989,42:877–884.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. (26)

    Conway TL, Ward HW, Vickers RR, Rahe RH: Occupational stress and variation in cigarette, coffee, and alcohol consumption.Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1981,22:155–164.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. (27)

    France C, Ditto B: Cardiovascular response to occupational stress and caffeine in telemarketing employees.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1989,51:145–151.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. (28)

    Lane JD, Manus DC: Persistent cardiovascular effects with repeated caffeine administration.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1989,51:373–380.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. (29)

    Lane JD, Williams RB: Cardiovascular effects of caffeine and stress in regular coffee drinkers.Psychophysiology. 1987,24: 157–164.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. (30)

    Loke WH: Effects of caffeine on mood and memory.Physiology and Behavior. 1988,44:367–372.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. (31)

    Loke WH: Effects of repeated caffeine administration on cognition and mood.Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental. 1990,5:339–348.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. (32)

    Shanahan MP, Huges RN: Potentiation of performance induced anxiety by caffeine in coffee.Psychological Reports. 1986,59: 83–86.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. (33)

    Ratliff-Crain J, O’Keeffe MK, Baum A: Cardiovascular reactivity, mood, and task performance in deprived and non-deprived coffee drinkers.Health Psychology. 1989,8:427–447.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. (34)

    Griffiths RR, Woodson PP: Caffeine physical dependence: A review of human and laboratory animal studies.Psychopharmacology. 1988,94:437–451.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. (35)

    Sharp DS, Benowitz NL: Pharmacoepidemiology of the effect of caffeine on blood pressure.Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1990,47:57–60.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. (36)

    Höfer I, Bättig K: Coffee consumption, blood pressure tonus, and reactivity to physical challenge in 338 women.Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 1993,44:573–576.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. (37)

    Shirlow MJ, Berry G, Stokes G: Caffeine consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological study.International Journal of Epidemiology. 1988,17:90–97.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. (38)

    Sharp D, Benowitz N: Re: “Inconsistent associations of caffeine-containing beverages with blood pressure and with lipoproteins: The CARDIA study.” (Letter).American Journal of Epidemiology. 1994,140:665–666.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. (39)

    Smits P, Thien T, van’t Larr A: The cardiovascular effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1985,19:852–854.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. (40)

    Parsons WD, Neims AH: Effect of smoking on caffeine clearance.Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1978,24:40–45.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. (41)

    Schreiber GB, Maffeo CE, Robins M, Masters MN, Bond AP: Measurement of coffee and caffeine intake: Implications for epidemiologic research.Preventive Medicine. 1988,17:280–294.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. (42)

    Krantz DS, Manuck SB: Acute psychophysiologic reactivity and risk of cardiovascular disease: A review and methodologic critique.Psychological Bulletin. 1984,96:435–464.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. (43)

    Julius S, Esler M: Autonomic nervous cardiovascular regulation in borderline hypertension: Symposium on hypertension.American Journal of Cardiology. 1975,36:685–696.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. (44)

    Smits P, Schouten J, Thein T: Cardiovascular effects of two xanthines and the relation to adenosine antagonism.Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1989,45:593–599.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. (45)

    Pincomb GA, Lovallo WR, Passey RB, et al: Effects of caffeine on vascular resistance, cardiac output, and myocardial contractility in young men.American Journal of Cardiology. 1985,56: 119–122.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. (46)

    Whitsett TL, Manion CV, Christensen HD: Cardiovascular effects of coffee and caffeine.American Journal of Cardiology. 1984,53:918–922.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. (47)

    Whitsett TL, Christensen HD, Hirsch KR: Cardiovascular effects of caffeine in humans. In Wang HH, Blumethal MR, Nagai SN (eds).Central Control Mechanisms and Related Topics. New York: Futura, 1980, 247–259.

    Google Scholar 

  48. (48)

    Hasenfratz M, Bättig K: Action profiles of smoking and caffeine: Stroop effect, EEG, and peripheral physiology.Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 1992,42:155–161.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. (49)

    Smits P, Boekema P, De Abreu R, Thein T, van’t Laar A: Evidence for an antagonism between caffeine and adenosine in the human cardiovascular system.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 1987,10:136–143.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. (50)

    Brown NJ, Ryder D, Branch RA: A pharmacodynamic interaction between caffeine and phenylpropanolamine.Clinical and Pharmacological Therapeutics. 1991,50:363–371.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. (51)

    Conrad K, Blanchard J, Irang JM: Cardiovascular effects of caffeine in elderly men.Journal of the American Geriatric Society. 1983,30:267–272.

    Google Scholar 

  52. (52)

    van Nguyen P, Myers MG: Cardiovascular effects of caffeine and nifedipine.Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1988,44: 315–319.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. (53)

    James JE, Richardson M: Pressor effects of caffeine and cigarette smoking.British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1991,30:276–278.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. (54)

    Smith A, Maben A, Brockman P: Effects of evening meals and caffeine on cognitive performance, mood, and cardiovascular functioning.Appetite. 1994,22:57–65.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. (55)

    Passmore AP, Kondowe GB, Johnston GD: Renal and cardiovascular effects of caffeine: A dose-response study.Clinical Science. 1987,72:749–756.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. (56)

    Pincomb GA, Sung BH, Lovallo WR, Wilson MF: Consistency of cardiovascular response pattern to caffeine across multiple studies using impedance and nuclear cardiography.Biological Psychology. 1993,36:131–138.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. (57)

    Astrup A, Toubro S, Cannon S, et al: Caffeine: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1990,51:759–767.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. (58)

    Greenberg W, Shapiro D: The effects of caffeine and stress on blood pressure in individuals with and without a family history of hypertension.Psychophysiology. 1987,24:151–156.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. (59)

    Lane JD, Williams RB: Caffeine affects cardiovascular responses to stress.Psychophysiology. 1985,22:648–655.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. (60)

    al’Absi M, Lovallo WR, Pincomb GA, et al: Effects of extended behavioral stress and caffeine on cardiovascular activity in borderline hypertensives. Society for Annals of Behavioral Medicine. San Francisco, CA: 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  61. (61)

    Lane JD, Adcock RA, Williams RB, Kuhn CM: Caffeine effects on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to acute psychosocial stress and their relationship to level of habitual caffeine consumption.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1990,52:320–336.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. (62)

    Lovallo WR, Pincomb GA, Sung BH, et al: Hypertension risk and caffeine’s effect on cardiovascular activity during mental stress in young men.Health Psychology. 1991,10:236–243.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. (63)

    van Dusseldorp M, Smits P, Lenders JWM, et al: Effects of coffee on cardiovascular response to stress: A 14-week controlled trial.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1992,54:344–353.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. (64)

    Lane JD: Caffeine and cardiovascular response to stress.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1983,45:447–451.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. (65)

    Pincomb GA, Lovallo WR, Passey RB, Brackett DJ, Wilson MF: Caffeine enhances the physiological response to occupational stress in medical students.Health Psychology. 1987,6:101–112.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. (66)

    Casiglia E, Bonjiovi S, Paleari CD, et al: Haemodynamic effects of coffee and caffeine in normal volunteers: A placebo-controlled clinical study.Journal of Internal Medicine. 1991,229:501–504.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. (67)

    Casiglia E, Paleari CD, Petucco S, et al: Haemodynamic effects of coffee and purified caffeine in normal volunteers: A placebo-controlled clinical study.Journal of Human Hypertension. 1992,6:95–99.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. (68)

    Spiller GA: Overview of the methylxanthine beverages and foods and their effect on health. In Black N, Brewer GJ, Eijsvoogel VP, et al (eds),Progress in Clinical and Biological Research: Vol. 158, The Methylxanthine Beverages and Foods. New York: Alan R Liss, 1984, 1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  69. (69)

    Izzo JL, Ghosal A, Kwong T, Freeman RB, Jaenike JR: Age and prior caffeine use alter the cardiovascular and adrenomedullary responses to oral caffeine.American Journal of Cardiology. 1983,52:796–773.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. (70)

    Haigh RA, Harper GD, Fotherby M, et al: Duration of caffeine abstention influences the acute blood pressure responses to caffeine in elderly normotensives.European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1993,44:549–553.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. (71)

    Potter JF, Haigh RA, Harper GD, et al: Blood pressure, plasma catecholamine, and renin responses to caffeine in elderly hypertensives.Journal of Human Hypertension. 1993,7:273–278.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. (72)

    Smits P, Thien T, van’t Larr A: Circulatory effects of coffee in relation to the pharmacokinetics of caffeine.American Journal of Cardiology. 1985,56:958–963.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. (73)

    Charney DS, Galloway MP, Heninger GR: The effects of caffeine on plasma MHPG, subjective anxiety, autonomic symptoms, and blood pressure in healthy humans.Life Science. 1984,35:135–144.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. (74)

    Poehlman ET, Després J-P, Bessette H, et al: Influence of caffeine on the resting metabolic rate of exercise-trained and inactive subjects.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1985,17: 689–697.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. (75)

    Sung BH, Whitsett TL, Lovallo WR, et al: Prolonged increase in blood pressure by a single oral dose of caffeine in mildly hypertensive men.American Journal of Hypertension. 1994,7:755–758.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. (76)

    Freestone S, Ramsey LE: Effects of coffee and cigarette smoking on the blood pressure of untreated and diuretic treated hypertensive patients.American Journal of Medicine. 1982,73:348–353.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. (77)

    Smits P, Hoffmann H, Thein T, Houben H, van’t Laar A: Hemodynamic and humoral effects of coffee after B1-selective and nonselective B-blockade.Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1983,34:153–158.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. (78)

    International Coffee Organization: United States of America, coffee drinking study—winter. London: International Coffee Organization, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  79. (79)

    France C, Ditto B: Caffeine effects on several indices of cardiovascular activity at rest and during stress.Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 1988,11:473–482.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. (80)

    Pincomb GA, Lovallo WR, Passey RB, Wilson MF: Effect of behavior state on caffeine’s ability to alter blood pressure.American Journal of Cardiology. 1988,61:798–802.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. (81)

    Hasenfratz M, Jaquet F, Aeschbach D, Bättig K: Interactions of smoking and lunch with the effects of caffeine on cardiovascular functions and information processing.Human Psychopharmacology. 1991,6:277–284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. (82)

    Hasenfratz M, Bättig K: No psychophysiological interactions between caffeine and stress?Psychopharmacology. 1992,109:283–290.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. (83)

    Hasenfratz M, Bättig K: Acute dose-effect relationships of caffeine and mental performance, EEG, cardiovascular and subjective parameters.Psychopharmacology. 1994,114:281–287.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. (84)

    France C, Ditto B: Cardiovascular response to the combination of caffeine and mental arithmetic, cold pressor, and static exercise stressors.Psychophysiology. 1992,29:272–282.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. (85)

    Piha SJ: Effect of acute dose of caffeine on cardiovascular autonomic responses in healthy subjects.Clinical Physiology. 1994,14:411–417.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. (86)

    Sung BH, Lovallo WR, Pincomb GA, Wilson MF: Effects of caffeine on blood pressure response during exercise in normotensive healthy young men.American Journal of Cardiology. 1990,65:909–913.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. (87)

    Sullivan J, Knowlton R, Brown D: Caffeine affects heart rate and blood pressure response to prolonged walking.Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation. 1992,12:418–422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. (88)

    Perkins KA, Sexton JE, Stiller RL, et al: Subjective and cardiovascular responses to nicotine combined with caffeine during rest and casual activity.Psychopharmacology, 1994,11:438–444.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. (89)

    Rose RJ: Familial influences on cardiovascular reactivity. In: Matthews KA, Weiss SM, Detre TM, et al (eds),Handbook of Stress, Reactivity, and Cardiovascular Disease. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986, 259–274.

    Google Scholar 

  90. (90)

    Hastrup JL, Light KC, Obrist PA: Parental hypertension and cardiovascular response to stress in healthy young adults.Psychophysiology. 1982,19:615–622.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. (91)

    Greenstadt L, Yang L, Shapiro D: Caffeine, mental stress, and risk for hypertension: A cross-cultural comparison.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1988,50:15–22.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. (92)

    Myers HF, Shapiro D, McClure F, Daims R: Impact of caffeine and psychological stress on blood pressure in Black and White men.Health Psychology. 1989,8:597–612.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. (93)

    Strickland TL, Myers HF, Lahey BB: Cardiovascular reactivity with caffeine and stress in Black and White normotensive females.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1989,51:381–389.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. (94)

    Grant DM, Tang BK, Kalow W: Variability in caffeine metabolism.Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1983,33:591–602.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. (95)

    Lovallo WR, Pincomb GA, Sung BH, et al: Caffeine may potentiate adrenocortical stress responses in hypertension-prone men.Hypertension. 1989,14:170–176.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. (96)

    Pincomb GA, Wilson MF, Sung BH, Passey RB, Lovallo WR: Effects of caffeine on pressor regulation during rest and exercise in men at risk for hypertension.American Heart Journal. 1991,122:1107–1115.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. (97)

    Goldstein IB, Shapiro D: The effects of stress and caffeine on hypertensives.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1987,49:226–235.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. (98)

    Goldstein IB, Shapiro D, Ka KH, Jun LY: Blood pressure response to the “second cup of coffee”.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1990,52:337–345.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. (99)

    Shi J, Benowitz NL, Denaro CP, Sheiner LB: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of caffeine: Tolerance to pressor effects.Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1993,53:6–14.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. (100)

    Robertson D, Hollister AS, Kincaid D, et al: Caffeine and hypertension.American Journal of Medicine. 1984,77:54–60.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. (101)

    Ammon HPT, Bieck PR, Mandalaz D, Verspohl EJ: Adaptation of blood pressure to continuous heavy coffee drinking in young volunteers. A double-blind crossover study.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1983,15:701–706.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  102. (102)

    Burr ML, Gallacher JE, Butland BK, Bolton CH, Downs LG: Coffee, blood pressure, and plasma lipids: A randomized controlled trial.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1989,43: 477–483.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. (103)

    Bak AAA, Grobbee DE: Caffeine, blood pressure, and serum lipids.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1991,53:971–975.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. (104)

    Bak AAA, Grobbee DE: A randomized study on coffee and blood pressure.Journal of Human Hypertension. 1990,4:259–264.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. (105)

    Rosmarin PC, Applegate WB, Somes GW: Coffee consumption and blood pressure: A randomized, crossover clinical trial.Journal of General Internal Medicine. 1990,5:211–213.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  106. (106)

    Höfer I, Bättig K: Cardiovascular, behavioral, and subjective effects of caffeine under field conditions.Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 1994,48:899–908.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. (107)

    Eggertsen R, Andreasson A, Hedner T, Karlberg BE, Hansson L: Effect of coffee on ambulatory blood pressure in patients with treated hypertension.Journal of Internal Medicine. 1993,233: 351–355.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  108. (108)

    MacDonald TM, Sharpe K, Fowler G, et al: Caffeine restriction: Effect on mild hypertension.British Medical Journal. 1991,303: 1235–1238.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. (109)

    Kuznicki JT, Turner LS: The effects of caffeine on caffeine users and non-users.Physiology and Behavior. 1986,37:397–408.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  110. (110)

    Suls J, Martin RE: Daily recording and ambulatory monitoring methodologies in behavioral medicine.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1993,15:3–7.

    Google Scholar 

  111. (111)

    Pickering TG: Applications of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in behavioral medicine.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1993,15:26–32.

    Google Scholar 

  112. (112)

    van Dusseldorp M, Smits P, Thien T, Katan MB: Effect of decaffeinated versus regular coffee on blood pressure.Hypertension. 1989,14:563–569.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Peter J. Green or Jerry Suls.

Additional information

Preparation of this manuscript was supported in part by NIH Grant HL46448.

About this article

Cite this article

Green, P.J., Kirby, R. & Suls, J. The effects of caffeine on blood pressure and heart rate: A review. Ann Behav Med 18, 201–216 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02883398

Download citation

Keywords

  • Systolic Blood Pressure
  • Caffeine
  • Diastolic Blood Pressure
  • Mean Arterial Pressure
  • Behavioral Medicine