Experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation

  • G. M. Tino
  • M. Inguscio
Article

References

  1. [1]
    Einstein A.,Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases, Sitzungsber. Kgl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1924) 261.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Einstein A.,Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases, Zweite Abhandlung, Sitzungsber. Kgl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1925) 3.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Bose S. N.,Plancks Gesetz und Lichtquantenhypothese,Z. Phys.,26 (1924) 178.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Fermi E.,Sulla quantizzazione del gas perfetto monoatomico,Rend. Lincei,3 (1926) 145.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Fermi E.,Zur Quantelung des idealen einatomigen Gases,Z. Phys.,36 (1926) 902.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Huang K.,Statistical Mechanics, second edition (Wiley, New York) 1987.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Griffin A., Snoke D. W. andStringari A. (Editors),Bose Einstein Condensation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge) 1995.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Anderson M. H., Ensher J. R., Matthews M. R., Wieman C. E. andCornell E. A.,Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,Science,269 (1995) 198.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Davis K. B., Mewes M.-O., Andrews M. R., van Druten N. J., Durfee D. S., Kurn D. M. andKetterle W.,Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,Phys. Rev. Lett.,75 (1995) 3969.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Bradley C. C., Sackett C. A., Tollett J. J. andHulet R. G.,Evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation in an atomic gas with attractive interactions,Phys. Rev. Lett.,75 (1995) 1687;79 (1997) 1170.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Bradley C. C., Sackett C. A. andHulet R. G.,Bose-Einstein condensation of lithium: observation of limited condensate number,Phys. Rev. Lett.,78 (1997) 985.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Special issue on:Laser cooling and trapping of atoms, edited byChu S. andWieman C.,J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,6 (1989) 2020.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Arimondo E., Phillips W. D. andStrumia F. (Editors),Laser manipulation of atoms and ions, Proceedings of the International School of Physics E. Fermi, Varenna, Course CXVIII (North-Holland, Amsterdam) 1992.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Chu S.,The manipulation of neutral particles,Rev. Mod. Phys.,70 (1998) 685.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Cohen-Tannoudji C.,Manipulating atoms with photons,Rev. Mod. Phys.,70 (1998) 707.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Phillips W. D.,Laser cooling and trapping of atoms,Rev. Mod. Phys.,70 (1998) 721.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Ertmer W., Blatt R., Hall J. L. andZhu M.,Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: Demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,Phys. Rev. Lett.,54 (1985) 996.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Phillips W. D. andMetcalf H.,Laser deceleration of an atomic beam,Phys. Rev. Lett.,48 (1982) 596.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Hänsch T. W. andSchawlow A. L.,Cooling of gases by laser radiation,Opt. Commun.,13 (1975) 68.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Chu S., Hollberg L., Bjorkholm J. E., Cable A. andAshkin A.,Three-dimensional viscous confinement and cooling of atoms by resonance radiation pressure,Phys. Rev. Lett.,55 (1985) 48.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Lett P. D., Watts R. N., Westbrook C. I., Phillips W. D., Gould P. L. andMetcalf H. J.,Observation of atoms laser cooled below the Doppler limit,Phys. Rev. Lett.,61 (1988) 169.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Dalibard J. andCohen-Tannoudji C.,Laser cooling below the Doppler limit by polarization gradients: simple theoretical models,J. Opt. Soc. Am.,6 (1989) 2023.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Ungar P. J., Weiss D. S., Riis E. andChu S.,Optical molasses and multilevel atoms: theory,J. Opt. Soc. Am.,6 (1989) 2058.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Salomon C., Dalibard J., Phillips W. D., Clairon A. andGuellati S.,Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 μK,Europhys. Lett.,12 (1990) 683.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Raab E. L., Prentiss M., Cable A., Chu S. andPritchard D. E.,Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,Phys. Rev. Lett.,59 (1987) 2631.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Steane A. andFoot C.,Laser cooling below the Doppler limit in a magneto-optical trap,Europhys. Lett.,14 (1991) 231.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Monroe C., Swann W., Robinson H. andWieman C.,Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,Phys. Rev. Lett.,65 (1990) 1571.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Lindquist K., Stephens M. andWieman C.,Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap,Phys. Rev. A,46 (1992) 4082.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Ketterle W., Davis K. B., Joffe M. A., Martin A. andPritchard D. E.,High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,Phys. Rev. Lett.,70 (1993) 2253.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Chu S., Bjorkholm J. E., Ashkin A. andCable A.,Experimental observation of optically trapped atoms,Phys. Rev. Lett.,57 (1986) 314.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Miller J. D., Cline R. A. andHeinzen D. J.,Far-off-resonance optical trapping of atoms,Phys. Rev. A,47 (1993) R4567.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Lemonde P., Morice O., Peik E., Reichel J., Perrin H., Hänsel W. andSalomon C.,An opto-electric trap for cold atoms,Europhys. Lett.,32 (1996) 555.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Davidson N., Lee H. J., Adams C. S., Kasevich M. andChu S.,Long atomic coherence times in an optical dipole trap,Phys. Rev. Lett.,74 (1995) 1311.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Aspect A., Arimondo E., Kaiser R., Vansteenkiste N. andCohen-Tannoudji C.,Laser cooling below the one-photon recoil energy by velocity-selective coherent population trapping,Phys. Rev. Lett.,61 (1988) 826.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Lawall J., Kulin S., Saubamea B., Bigelow N., Leduc M. andCohen-Tannoudji C.,Three-dimensional laser cooling of helium beyond the single-photon recoil limit,Phys. Rev. Lett.,75 (1995) 4194.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Esslinger T., Sander F., Weidemüller M., Hemmerich A. andHänsch T. W.,Subrecoil laser cooling with adiabatic transfer,Phys. Rev. Lett.,76 (1996) 2432.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Kasevich M. andChu S.,Laser cooling below a photon recoil with three-level atoms,Phys. Rev. Lett.,69 (1992) 1741.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Davidson N., Lee H. J., Kasevich M. andChu S.,Raman cooling of atoms in two and three dimensions,Phys. Rev. Lett.,72 (1994) 3158.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Reichel J., Morice O., Tino G. M. andSalomon C.,Subrecoil Raman cooling of cesium atoms,Europhys. Lett.,28 (1994) 477.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Reichel J., Bardou F., Dahan M. B., Peik E., Rand S., Salomon C. andCohen-Tannoudji C.,Raman cooling of cesium below 3 nk: new approach inspired by Lévy flight statistics,Phys. Rev. Lett.,75 (1995) 4575.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Lee H. J., Adams C. S., Kasevich M. andChu S.,Raman cooling of atoms in an optical dipole trap,Phys. Rev. Lett.,76 (1996) 2658.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Wing W.,Prog. Quantum Electron.,8 (1984) 181.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Kugler K. J., Paul W. andTrinks U.,A magnetic storage ring for neutrons,Phys. Lett. B,72 (1978) 422.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    Migdall A. L., Prodan J. V., Phillips W. D., Bergeman T. H. andMetcalf H. J.,First observation of magnetically trapped atoms,Phys. Rev. Lett.,54 (1985) 2596.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    Doyle J. M., Sandberg J. C., Yu I. A., Cesar C. L., Kleppner D. andGreytak T. J.,Hydrogen in the submillikelvin regime: sticking probability on superfluid 4He,Phys. Rev. Lett.,67 (1991) 603.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Luiten O. J., Werij H. G. C., Setija I. D., Reynolds M. W., Humans T. W. andWalraven J. T. M.,Lyman-α spectroscopy of magnetically trapped atomic hydrogen,Phys. Rev. Lett.,70 (1993) 544.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    Davis K. B., Mewes M.-O., Joffe M. A., Andrews M. R. andKetterle W.,Evaporative cooling of sodium atoms,Phys. Rev. Lett.,74 (1995) 5202;75 (1995) 2909.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Mewes M.-O., Andrews M. R., van Druten N. J., Kurn D. M., Durfee D. S. andKetterle W.,Bose-Einstein condensation in a tightly confining dc magnetic trap,Phys. Rev. Lett.,77 (1996) 416.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Prevedelli M., Cataliotti F. S., Cornell E. A., Ensher J. R., Fort C., Ricci L., Tino G. M. andInguscio M.,Trapping and cooling of potassium isotopes in a double-magneto-optical-trap apparatus,Phys. Rev. A,59 (1999) 886.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    Petrich W., Anderson M. H., Ensher J. R. andCornell E. A.,Stable, tightly confining magnetic trap for evaporative cooling of neutral atoms,Phys. Rev. Lett.,74 (1995) 3352.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Myatt C. J., Burt E. A., Ghrist R. W., Cornell E. A. andWieman C. E.,Production of two overlapping Bose-Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,Phys. Rev. Lett.,78 (1997) 586.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Arndt M., Ben Dahan M., Guery-Odelin D., Reynolds M. W. andDalibard J.,Observation of a zero-energy resonance in Cs-Cs collisions,Phys. Rev. Lett.,79 (1997) 625.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Kim J., Friedrich B., Katz D. P., Patterson D., Weinstein J. D., DeCarvalho R. andDoyle J. M.,Buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of atomic europium,Phys. Rev. Lett.,78 (1997) 3665.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    Bergeman T., Erez G. andMetcalf H. J.,Magnetostatic trapping fields for neutral atoms,Phys. Rev. A,35 (1987) 1535.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    Majorana E.,Atomi orientati in campo magnetico variabile,Nuovo Cimento,9 (1932) 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    Bergeman T. H., McNicholl P., Kycia J., Metcalf H. andBalazs N. L.,Quantized motion of atoms in a quadrupole magnetostatic trap,J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,6 (1989) 2249.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Pritchard D. E.,Cooling neutral atoms in a magnetic trap for precision spectroscopy,Phys. Rev. Lett.,51 (1983) 1336.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Gott Y. V.,Ioffe M. S. andTel’kovskii V. G.,Nucl. Fusion, Suppl, Pt.3 (1962) 1045; 1284.Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    Hess H. F.,Evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped and compressed spin-polarized hydrogen,Phys. Rev. B,34 (1986) 3476.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    Hess H. F., Kochanski G. P., Doyle J. M., Masuhara N., Kleppner D. andGreytak T. J.,Magnetic trapping of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen,Phys. Rev. Lett.,59 (1987) 672.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    Ketterle W. andvan Druten N. J.,Evaporative cooling of trapped atoms,Adv. At Mol. Opt. Phys.,37 (1996) 181.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    Walraven J. T. M.,Atomic hydrogen in magnetostatic traps, inQuantum Dynamics of Simple Systems, Proceedings of the 44th Summer School in Physics, Stirling 1994, 1996.Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Andrews M. R., Mewes M.-O., van Druten N. J., Durfee D. S., Kurn D. M. andKetterle W.,Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate,Science,273 (1996) 84.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    Hecht E.,Optics, second edition (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA) 1989.Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Andrews M. R., Kurn D. M., Miesner H.-J., Durfee D. S., Townsend C. G., Inouye S. andKetterle W.,Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate,Phys. Rev. Lett.,79 (1997) 553–556;80 (1998) 2967.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    Morice O., Castin Y. andDalibard J.,Refractive index of a dilute Bose gas,Phys. Rev. A,51 (1995) 3896.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    Ensher J. R., Jin D. S., Matthews M. R., Wieman C. E. andCornell E. A.,Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,Phys. Rev. Lett.,77 (1996) 4984.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. [68]
    Grossmann S. andHolthaus M.,On Bose-Einstein condensation in harmonic traps,Phys. Lett. A,208 (1995) 188.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. [69]
    Ketterle W. andvan Druten N. J.,Bose-Einstein condensation of a finite number of particles trapped in one or three dimensions,Phys. Rev. A,54 (1996) 656.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. [70]
    Bagnato V., Pritchard D. E. andKleppner D.,Bose-Einstein condensation in an external potential,Phys. Rev. A,35 (1987) 4354.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    Giorgini S., Pitaevskii L. andStringari S.,Thermodynamics of a trapped Bose-condensed gas,J. Low Temp. Phys.,109 (1997) 309.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    Bijlsma M. andStoof H. T. C.,Renormalization group theory of the three-dimensional dilute Bose gas,Phys. Rev. A,54 (1996) 5085.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    Jin D. S., Ensher J. R., Matthews M. R., Wieman C. E. andCornell E. A.,Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dilute gas,Phys. Rev. Lett.,77 (1996) 420.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. [74]
    Stringari S.,Collective excitations of a trapped Bose-condensed gas,Phys. Rev. Lett.,77 (1996) 2360.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. [75]
    Jin D. S., Matthews M. R., Ensher J. R., Wieman C. E. andCornell E. A.,Temperature-dependent damping and frequency shifts in collective excitations of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate,Phys. Rev. Lett.,78 (1997) 764.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    Stamper-Kurn D. M., Miesner H.-J., Inouye S., Andrews M. R. andKetterle W.,Collisionless and hydrodynamic excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate,Phys. Rev. Lett.,81 (1998) 500.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. [77]
    Bogoliubov N.,J. Phys., USSR,11 (1947) 23.Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    Lee T. D., Huang K. andYang C. N.,Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a Bose system of hard spheres and its low temperature properties,Phys. Rev.,106 (1957) 1135.MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    Zaremba E.,Sound propagation in a cylindrical Bose-condensed gas,Phys. Rev. A,57 (1998) 518.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    Ruprecht P. A., Holland M. J., Burnett K. andEdwards M.,Time-dependent solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for Bose-condensed trapped neutral atoms,Phys. Rev. A,51 (1995) 4704.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. [81]
    Dalfovo F. andStringari S.,Bosons in anisotropic traps: ground state and vortices,Phys. Rev. A,53 (1996) 2477.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. [82]
    Feshbach H.,A unified theory of nuclear reactions, II,Ann. Phys.,19 (1962) 287.MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. [83]
    Tiesinga E., Verhaar B. J. andStoof H. T. C.,Threshold and resonance phenomena in ultracold ground state collisions,Phys. Rev. A,47 (1993) 4114.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. [84]
    Inouye S., Andrews M. R., Stenger J., Miesner H.-J., Stamper-Kurn D. M. andKetterle W.,Observation of Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate,Nature,392 (1998) 151.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. [85]
    Stamper-Kurn D. M., Andrews M. R., Chikkatur A. P., Inouye S., Miesner H. -J., Stenger J. andKetterle W.,Optical confinement of a Bose-Einstein condensate,Phys. Rev. Lett.,80 (1998) 2027.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. [86]
    Larson D. J., Bergquist J. C., Bollinger J. J., Itano W. M. andWineland D. J.,Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions: a laser-cooled two-species nonneutral ion plasma,Phys. Rev. Lett.,57 (1986) 70.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. [87]
    Abraham E. R. I., McAlexander W. I., Gerton J. M., Hulet R. G., Cote R. andDalgarno A.,Triplet s-wave resonance in 6 Li collisions and scattering lengths of 6Li and7Li,Phys. Rev. A,55 (1997) R3299.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. [88]
    Cataliotti F. S., Cornell E. A., Fort C., Inguscio M., Marin F., Prevedelli M., Ricci L. andTino G. M.,Magneto-optical trapping of Fermionic potassium atoms,Phys. Rev. A,57 (1998) 1136.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. [89]
    Andrews M. R., Townsend C. G., Miesner H.-J., Durfee D. S., Kurn D. M. andKetterle W.,Observation of interference between two Bose condensates,Science,275 (1997) 637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    Burt E. A., Ghrist R. W., Myatt C. J., Holland M. J., Cornell E. A. andWieman C. E.,Coherence, correlations, and collisions: What one learns about Bose-Einstein condensates from their decay,Phys. Rev. Lett.,79 (1997) 337.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. [91]
    Kagan Y., Surkov E. L. andShlyapnikov G. V.,Effect of Bose condensation on inelastic processes in gases,JETP Lett.,42 (1985) 209.ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. [92]
    Wiseman H., Martins A. andWalls D.,Quantum Semiclass Opt.,8 (1996) 737.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. [93]
    Holland M.,Burnett K.,Gardiner C.,Cirac J. I. andZoller P.,Theory of an atom laser,Phys. Rev. A,54 (1996).Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    Spreeuw R. J. C., Pfau T., Janicke U. andWilkens M.,Laser-like scheme for atomic-matter waves,Europhys. Lett.,32 (1995) 469.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. [95]
    Olshanii M., Castin Y. andDalibard J.,A model for an atom laser, inProceedings of the 12th International Conference of Laser Spectroscopy, edited byM. Inguscio,M. Allegrini andA. Sasso (World Scientific, Singapore) 1995, p. 7.Google Scholar
  96. [96]
    Bordé Ch. J.,Amplification of atomic fields by stimulated emission of atoms,Phys. Lett. A,204 (1995) 217.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. [97]
    Mewes M.-O., Andrews M. R., Kurn D. M., Durfee D. S., Townsend C. G. andKetterle W.,Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms,Phys. Rev. Lett.,78 (1997) 582.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. [98]
    Boiron D., Michaud A., Fournier J. M., Simard L., Sprenger M., Grynberg G. andSalomon C.,Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,Phys. Rev. A,57 (1998) R4106.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. [99]
    Doyle J. M., Friedrich B., Kim J. andPatterson D.,Buffer-gas loading of atoms and molecules into a magnetic trap,Phys. Rev. A,52 (1995) R2515.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. [100]
    Butts D. A. andRokhsar D. S.,Trapped Fermi gases,Phys. Rev. A,55 (1997) 4346.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. [101]
    Houbiers M., Ferwerda R., Stoof H. T. C., McAlexander W. I., Sackett C. A. andHulet R. G.,Superfluid state of atomic 6Liin a magnetic trap,Phys. Rev. A,56 (1997) 4864.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. [102]
    Schneider J. andWallis H.,Mesoscopic Fermi gas in a harmonic trap,Phys. Rev. A,57 (1998) 1253.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. [103]
    Vichi L., Inguscio M., Stringari S. andTino G. M.,Quantum degeneracy and interaction effects in spin-polarized Fermi-Bose mixtures,J. Phys. B,31 (1998) LI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. [104]
    Dalfovo F., Giorgini S., Pitaevskii L. P. andStringari S.,Theory of Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped gases,Rev. Mod. Phys.,71 (1999) 463.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. [105]
    Inguscio M., Stringari S. andWieman C. E. (Editors),Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic gases, Proceedings of the International Scool of Physics E. Fermi, Varenna 1998, Course CXL (IOS Press, Amsterdam) 1999.Google Scholar
  106. [106]
    Fried D. G., Killian T. C., Willmann L., Landhuis D., Moss S. C., Kleppner D. andGreytak T. J.,Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen,Phys. Rev. Lett.,81 (1998) 3811.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. M. Tino
    • 1
  • M. Inguscio
    • 2
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell’Università di Napoli and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della MateriaComplesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo via CintiaNapoliItaly
  2. 2.Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della MateriaEuropean Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy and Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di FirenzeFirenzeItaly

Personalised recommendations