Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 209–216 | Cite as

Compliance with ambulatory saliva sampling in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study and associations with social support

  • Brigitte M. Kudielka
  • Louise C. Hawkley
  • Emma K. Adam
  • John T. Cacioppo
Article

Abstract

Background: Noncompliance with instructed saliva sampling times in ambulatory settings can compromise resulting cortisol findings.Purpose and Methods: Here, the impact of noncompliance on the cortisol awakening response (CAR), an established marker for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, was examined over 3 sampling days in middle- and older-age participants in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study.Results: Noncompliant participants had a significantly lower cortisol rise after awakening (assessed by an awakening sample and a 30-min after awakening sample) on 2 of the 3 sampling days (Day 1, ns; Days 2 & 3, ps<.02). Furthermore, social support measured by the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List correlated negatively with the number of “noncompliant” samples (r=−.19, p<.05), indicating that participants reporting more social support had more “compliant” samples.Conclusion: The results confirm that nonadherence to saliva sampling in ambulatory settings can exert a significant impact on the resulting CAR. Furthermore, the data raise the idea that the extent of nonadherence might be systematically associated with psychosocial factors like social support. For future studies on the relationship between CAR and psychological factors, we therefore recommend controlling for saliva sampling adherence because noncompliance might be systematically associated with the phenomenon being investigated.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Kudielka BM, Broderick JE, Kirschbaum C: Compliance with saliva sampling protocols: Electronic monitoring reveals invalid cortisol daytime profiles in noncompliant subjects.Psychosomatic Medicine. 2003,65:313–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. (2).
    Broderick JE, Arnold D, Kudielka BM, Kirschbaum C: Salivary cortisol sampling compliance: comparison of patients and healthy volunteers.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004,29:636–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. (3).
    Jacobs N, Nicolson NA, Derom C, et al.: Electronic monitoring of salivary cortisol sampling compliance in daily life.Life Sciences. 2005,76:2431–2443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. (4).
    Federenko I, Wüst S, Hellhammer DH, et al.: Free cortisol awakening responses are influenced by awakening time.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004,29:174–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    Clow A, Thorn L, Evans P, Hucklebridge F: The awakening cortisol response: Methodological issues and significance.Stress. 2004,7:29–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. (6).
    Pruessner JC, Wolf OT, Hellhammer DH, et al.: Free cortisol levels after awakening: a reliable biological marker for the assessment of adrenocortical activity.Life Sciences. 1997,61:2539–2549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. (7).
    Wilhelm I, Born J, Kudielka BM, Schlotz W, Wüst S: Is the cortisol awakening rise a response to awakening?Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007,32:358–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. (8).
    Wüst S, Wolf J, Hellhammer DH, et al.: The cortisol awakening response—normal values and confounds.Noise & Health. 2000,2:79–88.Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    Schlotz W, Hellhammer J, Schulz P, Stone AA: Perceived work overload and chronic worrying predict weekend-weekday differences in the cortisol awakening response.Psychosomatic Medicine. 2004,66:207–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    Kudielka BM, Kirschbaum C: Awakening cortisol responses are influenced by health status and awakening time but not by menstrual cycle phase.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003,28:35–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. (11).
    Bartels M, Van den Berg M, Sluyter F, Boomsma DI, de Geus EJ: Heritability of cortisol levels: review and simultaneous analysis of twin studies.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003,28:121–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    Wüst S, Federenko I, Hellhammer DH, Kirschbaum C: Genetic factors, perceived chronic stress, and the free cortisol response to awakening.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2000,25:707–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. (13).
    Adam EK, Hawkley LC, Kudielka BM, Cacioppo JT: Dayto-day dynamics of experience-cortisol associations in a population-based sample of older adults.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006,103:17058–17063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. (14).
    Pruessner JC, Hellhammer DH, Kirschbaum C: Burnout, perceived stress, and cortisol responses to awakening.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1999,61:197–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    Schulz P, Kirschbaum C, Pruessner JC, Hellhammer DH: Increased free cortisol secretion after awakening in chronically stressed individuals due to work overload.Stress Medicine. 1998,14:91–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. (16).
    Pruessner M, Hellhammer DH, Pruessner JC, Lupien SJ: Self-reported depressive symptoms and stress levels in healthy young men: Associations with the cortisol response to awakening.Psychosomatic Medicine. 2003,65:92–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. (17).
    Bhagwagar Z, Hafizi S, Cowen PJ: Increase in concentration of waking salivary cortisol in recovered patients with depression.The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003,160:1890–1891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    Bhagwagar Z, Hafizi S, Cowen PJ: Increased salivary cortisol after waking in depression.Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005,182:54–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. (19).
    Roberts AD, Wessely S, Chalder T, Papadopoulos A, Cleare AJ: Salivary cortisol response to awakening in chronic fatigue syndrome.The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2004,184:136–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. (20).
    Portella MJ, Harmer CJ, Flint J, Cowen P, Goodwin GM: Enhanced early morning salivary cortisol in neuroticism.The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2005,162:807–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. (21).
    Kudielka BM, Bellingrath S, Hellhammer DH: Cortisol in burnout and vital exhaustion: an overview.Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro ed Ergonomia [Applied Psychology to Work and Rehabilitation Medicine]. 2006,28:34–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. (22).
    DiMatteo MR: Social support and patient adherence to medical treatment: A meta-analysis.Health Psychology. 2004,23:207–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. (23).
    Ayuso-Mateos JL, Pereda A, Dunn G, et al.: Predictors of compliance with psychological interventions offered in the community.Psychological Medicine. 2007,37:717–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. (24).
    Mohr DC, Goodkin DE, Likosky W, et al.: Treatment of depression improves adherence to interferon beta-1b therapy for multiple sclerosis.Archives of Neurology. 1997,54:531–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. (25).
    Carney RM, Freedland KE, Eisen SA, Rich MW, Jaffe AS: Major depression and medication adherence in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.Health Psychology. 1995,14:88–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. (26).
    DiMatteo MR, Lepper HS, Croghan TW: Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: Meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence.Archives of Internal Medicine. 2000,160:2101–2107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. (27).
    Ziegelstein RC, Fauerbach JA, Stevens SS, et al.: Patients with depression are less likely to follow recommendations to reduce cardiac risk during recovery from a myocardial infarction.Archives of Internal Medicine. 2000,160:1818–1823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. (28).
    Blumenthal JA, Williams RS, Wallace AG, Williams RB, Jr. Needles TL: Physiological and psychological variables predict compliance to prescribed exercise therapy in patients recovering from myocardial infarction.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1982,44:519–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. (29).
    Kanazawa Y, Nakao T, Ohya Y, Shimomitsu T: Association of socio-psychological factors with the effects of low protein diet for the prevention of the progression of chronic renal failure.Internal Medicine. 2006,45:199–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. (30).
    Hughes ME, Waite LJ, Hawkley LC, Cacioppo JT: A short scale for measuring loneliness in large surveys: Results from two population-based studies.Research on Aging. 2004,26:655–672.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. (31).
    Cohen S, Hoberman HM: Positive events and social supports as buffers of life change stress.Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1983,13:99–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. (32).
    Cohen S, Mermelstein R, Kamarck T, Hoberman HM: Measuring the functional components of social support. In Sarason IG, Sarason BR (eds),Social Support: Theory, Research and Applications. The Hague, Netherlands: Martines Niijhoff, 1984, 73–94.Google Scholar
  33. (33).
    Kunz-Ebrecht SR, Kirschbaum C, Marmot M, Steptoe A: Differences in cortisol awakening response on work days and weekends in women and men from the Whitehall II cohort.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004,29:516–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. (34).
    Weitzman ED, Fukushima D, Nogeire C, et al.: Twenty-four hour pattern of the episodic secretion of cortisol in normal subjects.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1971,33:14–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. (35).
    Stone AA, Shiffman S, Schwartz JE, Broderick JE, Hufford MR: Patient compliance with paper and electronic diaries.Controlled Clinical Trials. 2003,24:182–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. (36).
    Stone AA, Shiffman S, Schwartz JE, Broderick JE, Hufford MR: Patient non-compliance with paper diaries.British Medical Journal. 2002,324:1193–1194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. (37).
    Schwartz JE, Broderick JE, Stone AA, Kirschbaum C: Diurnal patterns of cortisol: Individual variability and reliability [Abstract].Psychosomatic Medicine. 2005,67:A3.Google Scholar
  38. (38).
    Smyth JM, Ockenfels MC, Gorin AA, et al.: Individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1997,22:89–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. (39).
    Stone AA, Schwartz JE, Smyth J, et al.: Individual differences in the diurnal cycle of salivary free cortisol: A replication of flattened cycles for some individuals.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2001,26:295–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. (40).
    Kupper N, de Geus EJ, van den Berg M, et al.: Familial influences on basal salivary cortisol in an adult population.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005,30:857–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brigitte M. Kudielka
    • 1
  • Louise C. Hawkley
    • 2
  • Emma K. Adam
    • 3
  • John T. Cacioppo
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of PsychobiologyUniversity of TrierTrierGermany
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and Center for Cognitive & Social NeuroscienceUniversity of ChicagoChicago
  3. 3.School of Education and Social Policy and Cells to Society Center, Institute for Policy ResearchNorthwestern UniversityEvanston

Personalised recommendations