Skip to main content

Serum calcium levels in patients with essential hypertension and their first degree relatives


Calcium plays an important role in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension. Serum calcium levels were measured in 117 subjects with essential hypertension and 77 first-degree relatives. The results showed that serum calcium levels were significantly (p<0.01) decreased in both males and females with essential hypertension and their first-degree relatives when compared with the normotensive controls. This is the first study in Indian population.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Leonard, D., McDermott, R., Odea, K., Rowley, K.G., Pensio, P., Sambo, E., Twist, A., Toolis, R., Lowson, S. and Best, JD. (2002). Aust N Z J Public Health 26, 144–149.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Borghi, L., Meschi, T., Guerra, A., Briganti, A., Schianchi, T., Allegri, F. and Novarini A. (1999). Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease. Kidney Int. 55, 2397–2406.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Zidek, W., Vetter, H., Dorst, K.G., Zumkley, H. and Loose, H. (1982). Intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ activities in essential hypertension. Clinical Science. 63, 41S-43S.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Touyz, R.M., and Milne, F.J. (1995). Alterations in intracellular cations and cell membrane ATPase activity in patients with malignant hypertension. J. Hypertens., 13, 867–874.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Fu, Y., Wang, S., Lu, Z., Li, H. and Li, S. (1998). Erythrocyte and plasma Ca2+, Mg2+ and cell membrane adenosine triphosphatase activity in patients with essential hypertension. Clin. Med. J. (Engl) 111, 147–149.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Touyz, R.M., Milne, F.J. and Reinach S.G. (1992). Intracellular Mg2+, Ca2+, Na2+ and K+ in platelets and erythrocytes of essential hypertension patients: relation to blood pressure. J. Hypertens., 14, 1189–1209.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Zettner A. Seligson (1964). Application of atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the determination of calcium in serum. Clin. Chem. 10, 869–889.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Touyz, R.M., Milne, F.J. Seftel. H.C. and Reinach, S.G. (1987). Magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium status in normotensive and hypertensive Johannesburg residents. S. Afr. Med. J. 72, 377–381.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Reichel, H., Liebethal, R., Hense, H.W., Schmidt, G.H., and Ritz, E. (1992). Disturbed calcium metabolism in subjects with elevated diastolic blood pressure. Clin. Investig. 70, 748–751.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Kosch, M., Hausberg, M., Barembrock, M., Posadzy-malaczynska, A., Rahn, KH, Kisters, K. (2001). Increased membranous calcium concentrations in primary hypertension: a causal link to pathogenesis. J. Hum. Hypertens., 15, 37–40.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Haenni, A., Reneland, R., Lind, L. and Lithell, H. (2001). Serum aldosterone changes during hyperinsulinemia are correlated to body mass index and insulin sensitivity in patients with essential hypertension. J. Hypertens., 19, 107–112.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Holloway, E.T., and Bohr, D.F. (1973). Reactivity of vascular smooth muscle in hypertensive rats. Circ. Res. 33, 678–685.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Resnick, L.M. (1990). The effects of sodium and calcium in clinical hypertension: mediating role of vitamin D metabolism. Adv. Second Messenger Phosphoprotein Res. 24, 535–541.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Chlumsky, J. (1993). Calcium and hypertension. J. Hypertens. 39, 1181–1184.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to K. Sudhakar or P. P. Reddy.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sudhakar, K., Sujatha, M., Babu, S.R. et al. Serum calcium levels in patients with essential hypertension and their first degree relatives. Indian J Clin Biochem 19, 21–23 (2004).

Download citation

Key words

  • Hypertension
  • First-degree relatives
  • Serum calcium
  • vascular tone