Advertisement

Economic Botany

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 254–293 | Cite as

Hybridization of maize and teosinte, in mexico and guatemala and the improvement of maize

  • H. G. Wllkes
Article

Abstract

The recognition and subsequent detection of the importance of teosinte introgression in the racial diversity and heterotic gene architecture of maize has been one of the outstanding achievements of Paul C. Mangelsdorf’s investigations into the origin of maize. This paper documents three areas in Mexico and Guatemala where maize and teosinte hybridize and where there is a system by which native cultivators exploit the heterotic nature of maize to increase their harvest. There is little reason to doubt that the hybridization and subsequent introgression of teosinte genes into maize observed at these sites is changed from that which has occurred over the past three thousand years resulting in the tremendous diversity and pronounced hybrid vigor in maize.

Keywords

Maize Economic Botany Maize Field Stone Wall Central Plateau 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Anderson, E. 1944. The Sources of effective germplasm in hybrid maize. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 31:355–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. —. 1946. Maize in Mexico—a preliminary survey. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 33:147–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. —, and W. Brown. 1952. The history of the common maize varieties of the United States corn belt. Agricultural History 26:2–8.Google Scholar
  4. —, and L. O. Williams. 1954. Maize and sorghum as a mixed crop in Honduras. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 41:213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balint, A., A. Kovacs, and K. Jelenits. 1958. The part played byEuchlaena mexicana in quantitatively and qualitatively improving the protein content of maize. Novenytermeles 7:235–248.Google Scholar
  6. Beadle, G. W. 1972. The mystery of maize. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 43:2–11.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, W. 1967. Results of non-selective inbreeding in Maize. Der Zuchter 37:155–159.Google Scholar
  8. —, and P. C. Mangelsdorf. 1951. The effect on yield and morphology of the addition of teosinte germplasm to maize. Genetics 36:544 (Abst.)Google Scholar
  9. Bukasov, S. 1930. The cultivated plants of Mexico, Guatemala and Colombia. Bull. Appl. Botany, Genetics and Plant Breeding, Supplement 47, Leningrad.Google Scholar
  10. Chaganti, R. S. K. 1965. Cytogenetic studies of maize-Tripsacum hybrids and their derivatives. Bussey Inst. of Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. 93 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, J. 1956. Collection, preservation and utilization of indigenous strains of maize. J. Econ. Bot. 10:194–200.Google Scholar
  12. Collins, G. 1921. Teosinte in Mexico. J. Heredity 12:339–350.Google Scholar
  13. Cutler, H. C, and E. Anderson. 1941. A preliminary survey of the genusTripsacum. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 28:249–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Wet, J. M. J., L. M. Engle, C. A. Grant, and S. T. Tanaka. 1972. Cytology ofmaize-Tripsacum introgression. Am. J. Bot. 59:1026–1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. —, and J. R. Harlan. 1972. Origin of maize: the tripartite hypothesis. Euphytica 21:271–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. —, and C. A. Grant. 1971. Origin and evolution of teosinteZea mexicana (Schrad) Kuntze. Euphytica 20:255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. —, L. M. Engle, and C. A. Grant. 1973. Breeding behavior of maize-Tripsacum hybrids. Crop Science 13:254–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. —, R. J. Lambert, and L. M. Engle. 1972. Introgression fromTripsacum intoZea and the origin of maize. Caryologia 25:25–31.Google Scholar
  19. Flannery, K., and J. Schoenwelter. 1970. Archaeology 23:144–152.Google Scholar
  20. Galinat, W., P. C. Mangelsdorf, and L. Pierson. 1956. view of Genetics 5:447–478.Google Scholar
  21. —. 1973a. Intergenomic mapping of maize, teosinte andTripsacum. Evolution 27:644–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. —. 1973b. Preserve Guatemala Teosinte, a relic link in corn’s evolution. Science 180:323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. —. 1974. The domestication and genetic erosion of maize. Econ. Bot. 28:31–37.Google Scholar
  24. Galinat, W., P. C. Mangelsdorf, and L. Pierson. 1956. Estimates of teosinte introgression in archaeological maize. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 17:101–124.Google Scholar
  25. —, and R. J. Ruppe. 1961. Further archaeological evidence on the effects of teosinte introgression in the evolution of modern maize. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 19: 163–181.Google Scholar
  26. Grobman, A., A. Salhuana, and R. Sevilla (in collaboration with Paul C. Mangelsdorf). 1961. Races of maize in Peru. Nat. Acad. Sc/Nat Res. Coun. Publication 915. 374 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Hallauer, A., and J. Sears. 1972. Integrating exotic germplasm into corn belt maize breeding programs. Crop Science 12:203–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. J. R. Harlan, J. M. J. de Wet, and E. G. Price. 1973. Comparative evolution of cereals. Evolution 27:311–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harshberger, J. 1892. Maize, a botanical and economic study. Contr. Bot. Lab. Univ. Pa. 1:75–202.Google Scholar
  30. —. 1896. Fertile crosses of teosinte and maize. Garden and Forest 9:522–523.Google Scholar
  31. Hernandez-X, E. 1970. Exploracion Ethnobotanica y Su Metodologia. Colegio de Postgraduados Escuela Nacional de Agricultura Mexico. 69 pp.Google Scholar
  32. —, and G. Alanis-Flores. 1971. Estudio Morpologico de Cinco Nuevas Razas de Maiz de la Sierra Madre Occidental de Mexico: Implicaciones Filogeneticas y Fitogeograficas. Agrociencia 5:3–30.Google Scholar
  33. Iltis, H. H. 1972. The taxonomy ofZea mays (Gramineae). Phytologia 23:248–249.Google Scholar
  34. —. 1972. The extinction of species and the destruction of ecosystems. Am. Bio. Teacher 34:201–205.Google Scholar
  35. Kempton, J. H. 1926. Maize and man. J. of Heredity 17:32–51.Google Scholar
  36. -. 1938. Maize—our heritage from the indian. Smithsonian Report for 1937:385-408 (with 30 plates).Google Scholar
  37. —, and W. Popenoe. 1937. Teosinte in Guatemala; a report of an expedition to Guatemala, El Salvador and Chipas, Mexico. Carnegie Inst. Publ. 483:199–217.Google Scholar
  38. Linn, A. 1973. Corn; the New World’s secret weapon and the builder of its civilization. Smithsonian 4:58–65.Google Scholar
  39. Lopez y Para, R. 1908. El Teosinte, Mexico. 20 pp. Lumholtz, C. 1902. Unknown Mexico. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. Vol I. 530 pp.Google Scholar
  40. Mangelsdorf, P. C. 1947. The origin and evolution of maize. Adv. Genetics 1:161–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. —. 1958. The mutagenic effects of hybridizing maize and teosinte. Cold Spring Harbor. Symp. Quant. Biol. 23:409–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. —. 1961. Introgression in maize. Euphytica 10:157–168.Google Scholar
  43. —. 1966. Genetic potentials for increasing yields of food crops and animals. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 56:370–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. —, R. S. MacNeish, and W. C. Galinat. 1964. Domestication of corn. Science 143:538–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. —, and R. Lister. 1956. Archaeological evidence on the evolution of maize in northwestern Mexico. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 17:151–178.Google Scholar
  46. —, and R. G. Reeves. 1931. Hybridization of maize,Tripsacum andEuchlaena. J. Heredity 28:329–343.Google Scholar
  47. —. 1939. The origin of Indian Corn and its relatives. Texas Agr. Exp. Bull. No. 547:1–315.Google Scholar
  48. —, and C. Smith. 1949. New archaeological evidence on evolution in maize. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 13:213–247.Google Scholar
  49. Randolph, L. F. 1955. History and origin of corn. In: Corn and Corn Improvement. Academic Press, N.Y. 17–61.Google Scholar
  50. —. 1970. Variation amongTripsacum populations of Mexico and Guatemala. Brittonia 22:305–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rodriguez, A. E. 1962. El Achaparramiento del Maiz en Mexico. Sobretiro del Informe de le 7a Reunion del Projecto Cooperativo Centroamericano para el Mejoramiento del Maiz. Pp. 77–84.Google Scholar
  52. Sehgal, S. M. 1963. Effects of teosinte andTripsacum introgression in maize. Bussey Inst. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass, iii + 63 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Watson, S. 1891. Contributions to American botany. (3) Upon a wild species ofZea from Mexico. A.A.A.S. Proc. 26:158–161.Google Scholar
  54. Weatherwax, P. 1954. India Corn in Old America. MacMillan Co., New York. 253 pp.Google Scholar
  55. Wellhausen, E. J., A. Fuentes-O, A. Hernandez-Corao (en colaboracion con P. C. Mangelsdorf). 1957. Razas de-Maiz en la America Central. Folleto Tecnico No. 31 Sec. de Argicultura y Ganaderia, Mexico.Google Scholar
  56. —, L. M. Roberts, and E. Hernandez-Xolocotzi (in collaboration with P. C. Mangelsdorf). 1952. Races of maize in Mexico. Bussey Inst. of Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  57. Wilkes, H. G. 1963. Field studies on teosinte in Mexico. Maize Genetics Coop. Newsletter 37:38–39.Google Scholar
  58. —. 1964. Teosinte in Mexico and Central America. Maize Genetics Coop. Newsletter 38:136–138.Google Scholar
  59. —. 1965a. Teosinte populations in Nobogame Mexico. Maize Genetics Coop. Newsletter 39:71.Google Scholar
  60. —. 1965b. Seed from the Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua. Maize Genetics Coop. Newsletter 39: 188.Google Scholar
  61. —. 1967. Teosinte: the closest relative of maize. The Bussey Inst. of Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass, iv + 159 pp.Google Scholar
  62. —. 1968. Teosinte x maize hybrids Nobogame, Mexico. Maize Genetics Coop. Newsletter 42:165–166.Google Scholar
  63. —. 1969a. Field studies on hybridization and parallel variation in the wild relatives of maize in Central Mexico I. Maize Genetics Coop. Newsletter 43: 182–183.Google Scholar
  64. -. 1969b. Reconstruction of the habitat and distribution of wild maize.Abstracts of the papers of the XI Intern. Botanical Congress, p. 239.Google Scholar
  65. —. 1970b. Field studies on hybridization and parallel variation in the wild relatives of maize in Central America II. Maize Genetics Coop. Newsletter 44:188–189.Google Scholar
  66. —. 1970b. Teosinte introgression in the maize of the Nobogame Valley. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 22:297–311.Google Scholar
  67. —. 1972a. Genetic erosion in Teosinte. Plant Genetic Resources FAO (Rome) No. 28:3–10.Google Scholar
  68. —. 1972b. Maize and its wild relatives. Science 177:1071–1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. —. 1973. Exploitation by native cultivators of teosinte introgression in Mexican corn fields. Contributed paper No. 183. First International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology. Boulder, Colorado.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. G. Wllkes
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology IIUniversity of MassachusettsBoston

Personalised recommendations