The Botanical Review

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 104–135 | Cite as

Comparative cytology, evolution and classification of the green algae with some consideration of the origin of other organisms with chlorophylls A and B

  • Kenneth D. Stewart
  • Karl R. Mattox


Green Alga Botanical Review Land Plant Daughter Nucleus Spindle Pole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References Cited

  1. Bartnicki-Garcia, S. 1970. Cell wall composition and other biochemical markers in fungal phylogeny.In: Phytochemical phylogeny, ed. by J. B. Harborne. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Berlyn, M. B., S. I. Ahmed, & N. H. Giles. 1970. Organization of polyaromatic biosynthetic enzymes in a variety of photosynthetic organisms. J. Bacteriol.104: 768–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Birkbeck, T. E., K. D. Stewart, & K. R. Mattox. 1974. The cytology and classification ofSchizomeris leibleinii. II. The structure of quadriflagellate zoospores. Phycologia13: 71–79.Google Scholar
  4. Bouck, G. B. 1965. Fine structure and organelle associations in the brown algae. J. Cell Biol.26: 523–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bower, F. O.1908. The origin of a land flora. London.Google Scholar
  6. Bråten, T., & A. Løvlie. 1968. On the ultrastructure of vegetative and sporulating cells of the multicellular green algaUlva mutabilis Føyn. Nytt Mag. Bot.15: 209–219.Google Scholar
  7. Campbell, D. H. 1918. The structure and development of mosses and ferns. 3rd Ed. New York.Google Scholar
  8. Carothers, Z. B., & G. L. Kreitner. 1968. Studies of spermatogenesis in the Hepaticae. II. Blepharoplast structure in the spermatid ofMarchantia. J. Cell Biol.36: 603–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Darley, W. M., D. Porter, & M. S. Fuller. 1973. Cell wall composition and synthesis via golgi-directed scale formation in the marine eucaryote,Schizochytrium aggregatum, with a note onThraustochytrium sp. Arch. Mikrobiol.90: 89–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deason, T. D., & W. H. Darden, Jr. 1971. The male initial and mitosis inVolvox.In: Contributions in phycology, ed. by B. C. Parker & R. M. Brown, Jr. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.Google Scholar
  11. Dodge, J. D. 1968. The fine structure of chloroplasts and pyrenoids in some marine dinoflagellates. J. Cell Biol.3: 41–48.Google Scholar
  12. —. 1971. A dinoflagellate with both a mesocaryotic and a eucaryotic nucleus. I. Fine structure of the nuclei. Protoplasma73: 145–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Duckett, J. G. 1973. An ultrastructural study of the differentiation of the spermatozoid ofEquisetum. J. Cell Sci.12: 95–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. —, & P. R. Bell. 1969. The occurrence of a multilayered structure in the sperm of a pteridophyte. Planta89: 203–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ettl, H., & I. Manton. 1964. Die feinere Struktur vonPedinomonas minor Korschikoff. Nova Hedwigia8: 421–451.Google Scholar
  16. Evans, L. V., & A. O. Christie. 1970. Studies on the ship-fouling algaEnteromorpha. I. Aspects of the fine structure and biochemistry of swimming and newly settled zoospores. Ann. Bot.34: 451–466.Google Scholar
  17. Floyd, G. L., K. D. Stewart, & K. R. Mattox. 1971. Comparative ultrastructure of several ulotrichalean algae. J. Phycol.7(suppl.): 9.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 1972a. Comparative cytology ofUlothrix andStigeoclonium. J. Phycol.8: 68–81.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 1972b. Cellular organization, mitosis and cytokinesis inKlebsormidium. J. Phycol.8: 176–184.Google Scholar
  20. Fowke, L. C., & J. D. Pickett-Heaps. 1969a. Cell division inSpirogyra. I. Mitosis. J. Phycol.5: 240–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. ——. 1969b. Cell division inSpirogyra. II. Cytokinesis. J. Phycol.5: 273–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fraser, T. W., & B. E. S. Gunning. 1969. The ultrastructure of plasmodesmata in the filamentous green alga,Bulbochaete hiloensis (Nordst.) Tiffany. Planta88: 244–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frederick, S. E., P. J. Gruber, & N. E. Tolbert. 1973. The occurrence of glycolate dehydrogenase and glycolate oxidase in green plants: An evolutionary survey. Plant Physiol.52: 318–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fritsch, F. E. 1935. Structure and reproduction of the algae, volume1. Cambridge University Press, London. 791 pp.Google Scholar
  25. —. 1945. Studies in the comparative morphology of the algae. IV. Algae and archegoniate plants. Ann. Bot. N.S.9: 1–29.Google Scholar
  26. Frye, T. C., & L. Clark. 1937–1947. Hepaticae of North America. University of Washington Press, Seattle. Parts I-V.Google Scholar
  27. Furtado, J. S., & L. S. Olive. 1971. Ultrastructure of the protostelidCeratiomyxella tahitiensis including scale formation. Nova Hedw.21: 537–576.Google Scholar
  28. Gerhardt, B., & C. Berger. 1971. Microbodies und DiaminobenzidinReaktion in den Acetat-FlagellatenPolytomella caeca undChlorogonium elongatum. Planta100: 155–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gibbs, S. P. 1970. The comparative ultrastructure of the algal chloroplast. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.175: 454–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Giraud, G., & Y. Czaniski. 1971. Localisation ultrastructurale d’activites oxydasiques chez leChlamydomonas reinhardi. Comptes Rendus Ser. D.273: 2500–2503.Google Scholar
  31. Graham, L. E., & G. E. McBride. 1974. Multilayered structures in motile cells ofTrentepohlia aurea and the evolutionary implications. J. Phycol.10(suppl.): 8.Google Scholar
  32. Hill, G. J. C., & L. Machlis. 1968. An ultrastructural study of vegetative cell division inOedogonium borisianum. J. Phycol.4: 261–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoffman, L. R. 1968. Observations on the fine structure ofOedogonium. V. Evidence for the de novo formation of pyrenoids in the zoospores ofOe. cardiacum. J. Phycol.4: 212–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. —, & I. Manton. 1962. Observations on the fine structure of the zoospore ofOedogonium cardiacum with special reference to the flagellar apparatus. J. Exptl. Bot.13: 443–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jagersten, G. 1972. Evolution of the metazoan life cycle; a comprehensive theory. Academic Press, New York. 282 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Johnson, U. G., & K. R. Porter. 1968. Fine structure of cell division inChlamydomonas reinhardi. J. Cell Biol.38: 403–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leedale, G. F. 1967. Euglenoid flagellates. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 242 pp.Google Scholar
  38. —. 1970. Phylogenetic aspects of nuclear cytology in the algae. Ann. New York Acad. Sci.175: 429–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Løvlie, A., & T. Braten. 1970. On mitosis in the multicellular green algaUlva mutabilis Føyn. J. Cell Sci.6: 109–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Maiwald, M. 1971. A comparative ultrastructural study ofPyramimonas montana Geitler and aPyramimonas spec. Arch. Protistenk.113: 334–344.Google Scholar
  41. Manton, I. 1964. Observations on the fine structure of the zoospore and young germling ofStigeoclonium. J. Exp. Bot.15: 399–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. —. 1965. Some phyletic implications of flagellar structure in plants.In: Advances in botanical research, ed. by R. D. Preston. Academic Press, London and New York.2: 1–34.Google Scholar
  43. —, B. Clarke, & A. D. Greenwood. 1955. Observations with the electron microscope on biciliate and quadriciliate zoospores in green algae. J. Exp. Bot.6: 127–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. —, & I. Friedmann. 1959. Gametes, fertilization and zygote development inPrasiola stipitata Suhr. II. Electron microscopy. Nova Hedwigia1: 443–462.Google Scholar
  45. Marchant, H. J., & J. D. Pickett-Heaps. 1973. Mitosis and cytokinesis inColeochaete scutata. J. Phycol.9: 461–471.Google Scholar
  46. ——, & K. Jacobs. 1973. An ultrastructural study of zoosporogenesis and the mature zoospore ofKlebsormidium flaccidum. Cytobios8: 95–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Mattox, K. R., & H. C. Bold. 1962. Phycological studies. III. The taxonomy of certain ulotrichalean algae. Univ. Texas Publ. 6222.Google Scholar
  48. —, & K. D. Stewart. 1973. Observations on the zoospores ofPseudendoclonium basiliense andTrichosarcina polymorpha. Can. J. Bot.51: 1425–1430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. ——. 1974. A comparative study of cell division inPseudendoclonium basiliense andTrichosarcina polymorpha (Chlorophyceae). J. Phycol.10: 447–456.Google Scholar
  50. ——, & G. L. Floyd. 1974. The cytology and classification ofSchizomeris leibleinii. I. The vegetative thallus. Phycologia13: 63–70.Google Scholar
  51. McBride, G. E. 1968. Ultrastructure of theColeochaete scutata zoospore. (Abstr.). J. Phycol.4(suppl.): 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. —. 1970. Cytokinesis and ultrastructure inFritschiella tubersoa Iyengar. Arch. Protistenk.112: 365–375.Google Scholar
  53. Micalef, H., & P. Gayral. 1972. Quelques aspects de l’infrastructure des cellules vegetatives et des cellules reproductrices d’Ulvalactuca L. (Chlorophyceés). J. de Microscopie13: 417–428.Google Scholar
  54. Nelson, E. B., & N. E. Tolbert. 1970. Glycolate dehydrogenase in green algae. Arch. Biochem. Biophys.141: 102–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Norris, R. E., & B. R. Pearson. 1973. Ultrastructure of mitosis and cytokinesis in a marine species ofPyramimonas. J. Phycol.9(suppl.): 16.Google Scholar
  56. Novikoff, A., & S. Goldfischer. 1969. Visualization of peroxisomes (microbodies) and mitochondria with diaminobenzidine. J. Histochem. Cytochem.17: 675–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Parke, M., & I. Manton. 1965. Preliminary observations on the fine structure ofPrasinocladus marinus. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K.45: 525–536.Google Scholar
  58. Patenaude, R. D., & D. L. Brown. 1973. Microtubule distribution inPolytomella agilis. J. Phycol.9(suppl.): 7.Google Scholar
  59. Peterfi, L. S., & I. Manton. 1968. Observations with the electron microscope onAsteromonas gracilis Artari emend (Stephanoptera gracilis (Artari) Wisl. with some comparative observations onDunaliella sp. Brit. Phycol. Bull.3: 423–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pickett-Heaps, J. D. 1967. Ultrastructure and differentiation ofChara sp. II. Mitosis. Aust. J. Biol. Sci.20:883–894.Google Scholar
  61. —. 1968. Ultrastructure and differentiation inChara (fibrosa). IV. Spermatogenesis. Aust. J. Biol. Sci.21: 655–690.Google Scholar
  62. —. 1969. The evolution of the mitotic apparatus: An attempt at comparative ultrastructural cytology in dividing plant cells. Cytobios3: 257–280.Google Scholar
  63. —. 1971. Reproduction by zoospores inOedogonium. I. Zoosporogenesis. Protoplasma72: 275–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. —. 1972a. Cell division inCosmarium botrytis. J. Phycol.8: 343–360.Google Scholar
  65. —. 1972b. Cell division inKlebsormidium subtillissimum (formerlyUlothrix subtillissima) and its possible phylogenetic significance. Cytobios6: 167–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. —. 1972c. Cell division inTetraedron. Ann. Bot.36: 693–701.Google Scholar
  67. —. 1972d. Reproduction by zoospores inOedogonium. II. Emergence of the zoospore and the motile phase. Protoplasma74: 149–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. —. 1972e. Variation in mitosis and cytokinesis in plant cells: Its significance in the phylogeny and evolution of ultrastructural systems. Cytobios5: 59–77.Google Scholar
  69. —. 1973a. Cell division inTetraspora. Ann. Bot.37: 1017–1025.Google Scholar
  70. —. 1973b. Cell division and wall structure inMicrospora. New Phytol.72: 347–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. —, & L. C. Fowke. 1969. Cell division inOedogonium. I. Mitosis, cytokinesis and cell elongation. Aust. J. Biol. Sci.22: 857–894.Google Scholar
  72. ——. 1970a. Cell division inOedogonium. II. Nuclear division inO. cardiacum. Aust. J. Biol. Sci.23: 71–92.Google Scholar
  73. ——. 1970b. Mitosis, cytokinesis and cell elongation in the desmid,Closterium littorale. J. Phycol.6: 189–215.Google Scholar
  74. —, & H. Marchant. 1972. The phylogeny of the green algae: A new proposal. Cytobios6: 255–264.Google Scholar
  75. Pringsheim, N. 1877. Über den Generationswechsel der Thallophyten und seinen Anschluss an den Generationswechsel der Moose. Monatsbericht d. K. Akad. Wiss. (Berlin)1876: 869–911.Google Scholar
  76. —. 1878. Über Sprossung der Moosfruchte und den Generationswechsel der Thallophyten. Jahrb. Wiss. Bot.11: 1–46.Google Scholar
  77. Raven, P. H. 1970. A multiple origin for plastids and mitochondria. Science169: 641–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ris, H., & D. F. Kubai. 1974. An unusual mitotic mechanism in the parasitic protozoanSyndinium sp. J. Cell Biol.60: 702–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Roth-Bejerano, N., & S. H. Lips. 1973. Glycolate dehydrogenase activity in higher plants. Israel J. Bot.22: 1–7.Google Scholar
  80. Round, F. E. 1971. The taxonomy of the Chlorophyta. II. Br. Phycol. J.6: 235–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schuster, R. M. 1966. The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America, volume I. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Silva, P. C., K. R. Mattox, & W. H. Blackwell, Jr. 1972. The generic nameHormidium as applied to green algae. Taxon21: 639–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Silverberg, B. 1974. Selected studies in the fine structure of Characean cells. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Toronto, Toronto.Google Scholar
  84. Smith, G. M. 1950. Fresh-water algae of the United States. 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 719 pp.Google Scholar
  85. Stewart, K. D., G. L. Floyd, K. R. Mattox, & M. E. Davis. 1972. Cytochemical demonstration of a single peroxisome in a filamentous green alga. J. Cell Biol.54: 431–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. —, K. R. Mattox, & G. L. Floyd. 1973. Mitosis, cytokinesis, and distribution of plasmodesmata and other cytological characteristics in the Ulotrichales, Uvales and Chaetophorales —phylogenetic and taxonomic considerations. J. Phycol.9: 128–141.Google Scholar
  87. ——, & C. D. Chandler. 1974. Mitosis and cytokinesis inPlatymonas subcordiformis, a scaly green monad. J. Phycol.10: 65–79.Google Scholar
  88. Tolbert, N. E. 1971. Microbodies — peroxisomes and glyoxysomes. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol.22: 45–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tomas, R. N., & E. R. Cox. 1973. Observations on the symbiosis ofPeridinium balticum and its intracellular alga. I. Ultrastructure. J. Phycol.9: 304–323.Google Scholar
  90. Tourtè, M. 1972. Mise en evidence d’une activité catalasique dans les peroxysomes deMicrasterias fimbriata (Ralfs). Planta105: 50–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Turner, F. R. 1968. An ultrastructural study of plant spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis inNitella. J. Cell Biol.37: 370–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Walne, P. L., & H. J. Arnott. 1967. The comparative ultrastructure and possible function of eyespots:Euglena granulata andChlamydomonas eugametos. Planta77: 325–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Watson, M. W., & H. J. Arnott. 1973. Ultrastructural morphology ofMicrothamnion zoospores. J. Phycol.9: 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth D. Stewart
    • 1
  • Karl R. Mattox
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyMiami UniversityOxford

Personalised recommendations