Economic Botany

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 261–264 | Cite as

Salads for everyone—a look at the lettuce plant

  • Thomas W. Whitaker
Article

Summary

If we examine in detail the origin, domestication and breeding system of cultivated lettuce, the following conclusions emerge:
  1. 1.

    The group of species from which lettuce originated is indigenous to the eastern Mediterranean Basin, probably Egypt.

     
  2. 2.

    Lettuce was most likely domesticated in Egypt, moving at an early date to Rome, Greece and later to China. It moved to the Americas shortly after their discovery, and as early as 1806 seedsmen listed more than a dozen cultivars from the United States.

     
  3. 3.

    Lettuce is a self-fertilized species which, under cultivation, has produced an abundance of variation, mostly in leaf size, shape, texture and color, and the arrangement of the leaves on the stem.

     
  4. 4.

    Variation in lettuce can be accounted for by early interspecific hybridization, and the protection of many mutants undesirable under natural conditions, but favorable under cultivation.

     
  5. 5.

    An analysis of the characters that separate these two species indicates thatL. sativa could be derived fromL. serriola by intensive selection.

     

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Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Anderson, Edgar. 1949. Introgressive hybridization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 109 pp.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lindqvist, K. 1960. On the origin of cultivated lettuce. Hereditas46: 319–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stebbins, G. Ledyard. 1957. Self-fertilization and population variability in higher plants. Amer. Nat.91: 337–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sturtevant, E. L. 1919. Sturtevant’s notes on edible plants. Ed. by U. P. Hedrick, Albany, N. Y. 686 pp.Google Scholar
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    Thompson, R. C., and E. J. Ryder. 1961. Description and pedigrees of nine varieties of lettuce. USDA Tech. Bull. 1244. 19 pp.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    —, Thomas W. Whitaker, and W. F. Kozar. 1941. Interspecific genetic relationships inLactuca. Jour. Agr. Res.63(2): 91–107.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Whitaker, Thomas W., and G. D. McCollum. 1954. Shattering in lettuce—its inheritance and biological significance. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club81(2): 104–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas W. Whitaker
    • 1
  1. 1.United States Department of AgricultureCrops Research Division, Agricultural Research ServiceLa Jolla

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