Skip to main content

Patterns of isozyme variation between maize and Mexican annual teosinte

Abstract

Isozyme variation in 94 accessions of Mexican maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) and 37 collections of Mexican annual teosinte (Z. mays ssp. mexicana and var. parviglumis) are compared. Variety parviglumis (a predominantly wild plant) shows a closer genetic relationship to maize than does ssp. mexicana (a weedy teosinte often found in maize fields). The isozyme data suggest that maize and Z. mays var. parviglumis share a more recent common ancestor than either of these taxa share with other members of the genus Zea. In this sense, the isozyme data support the theory that maize is a domesticated form of teosinte. Isozyme data provide no evidence for independent origin of Mexican maize races from different taxa of teosinte. Isozyme analysis suggests that gene flow between maize and ssp. mexicana exists, but that it is highly restricted and more probably goes from weed into crop. Maize and var. parviglumis are isozymically too similar and too variable to allow patterns of gene flow between them (if any) to be discerned. The maize- teosinte complex does not fit a model applied to some other crops in that (I) weedy teosinte (ssp. mexicana) does not appear to be a hybrid of the wild form (var. parviglumis,) and maize and (2) the weedy form does not act as a genetic bridge between wild form and crop.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Literature Cited

  1. Barrett, S. C. H. 1983. Crop mimicry in weeds. Econ. Bot. 37:255–282.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Beadle, G. W. 1980. The ancestry of corn. Sci. Amer. 242:112–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bird, R. M. 1980. Maize evolution from 500 B.C. to the present. Biotropica 12:30–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Cardy, B. J., C. W. Stuber, and M. M. Goodman. 1980. Techniques for starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes from maize (Zea mays L.). Inst. of Statistics Mimeo Series 1317, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Collins, G. N. 1921. Teosinte in Mexico. J. Heredity 12:339–350.

    Google Scholar 

  6. de Wet, J. M. J. 1975. Evolutionary dynamics of cereal domestication. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102: 307–312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. —, J. R. Harlan, and C. A. Grant. 1971. Origin and evolution of teosinte (Zea mexicana (Schrad.) Kuntze). Euphytica 20:255–265.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Doebley, J. F. 1983. The maize and teosinte male inflorescence: a numerical taxonomic study. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70:32–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. —. 1984. Maize introgression into teosinte—a reappraisal. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71:1100–1113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. —, M. M. Goodman, and C. W. Stuber. 1983. Isozyme variation in maize from the southwestern United States: taxonomic and anthropological implications. Maydica 28:94–120.

    Google Scholar 

  11. —,—, and —. 1984. Isozyme variation inZea (Gramineae). Syst. Bot. 9:203–218.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. —,—, and —. 1985. Isozyme variation in the races of maize from Mexico. Amer. J. Bot. 72:629–639.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Galinat, W. C. 1973. Preserve Guatamalan teosinte, a relict link in corn’s evolution. Science 180: 323.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. —. 1983. The origin of maize as shown by key morphological traits of its ancestor, teosinte. Maydica 28:121–138.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Goodman, M. M., and C. W. Stuber, 1983a. Races of maize. VI. Isozyme variation among races of maize in Bolivia. Maydica 28:169–187.

    Google Scholar 

  16. —, and —. 1983b. Maize.In S.D. Tanksley and T.J. Orton, eds., Isozymes in plant genetics and breeding, Part B., p. 1–33. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Harlan, J. R. 1975. Crops and man. Amer. Soc. Agronomy, Madison, WI.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Heiser, C. 1973. Introgression re-examined. Bot. Rev. 39:347–366.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Iltis, H. H. 1983. From teosinte to maize: the catastrophic sexual transmutation. Science 222:886- 894.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. —, and J. F. Doebley. 1980. Taxonomyof Zea (Gramineae). II. Subspecific categories in theZea mays complex and a genetic synopsis. Amer. J. Bot. 67:994–1004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Kato, T. A. 1976. Cytological studies of maize. Massachusetts Agric. Exper. Sta. Bull. 635.

  22. —. 1984. Chromosome morphology and the origin of maize and its races. Evol. Biol. 17:219- 253.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Ladizinsky, G. 1985. Founder effect in crop plant evolution. Econ. Bot. 39:191–199.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Mangelsdorf, P. C. 1974. Corn: its origin, evolution and improvement. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  25. —, and W. C. Galinat. 1964. The tunicate locus in maize dissected and reconstituted. Proc. Natl. Acad. U.S.A. 51:147–150.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. McClintock, B. 1959. Chromosome constitutions of Mexican and Guatemalan races of maize. Annual Rep. Dept. Genet. Carnegie Inst. Washington 59:461–472.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Randolph, L. F. 1959. The origin of maize. Indian J. Genet. Pl. Breed. 19:1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Smith, J. S. C, M. M. Goodman, and C. W. Stuber. 1984. Variation within teosinte. III. Numerical analysis of allozyme data. Econ. Bot. 38:97–113.

    Google Scholar 

  29. —,—, and. 1985. Relationships between maize and teosinte of Mexico and Guatemala: numerical analysis of allozyme data. Econ. Bot. 39:12–24.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Stuber, C. W., and M. M. Goodman. 1983. Allozyme genotypes for popular and historically important inbred lines of corn,Zea mays L. U.S.D.A. Agric. Res. Results, Southern Series 16, New Orleans, LA.

  31. Timothy, D. H., C. S. Levings, D. R. Pring, M. F. Conde, and J. L. Kermicle. 1979. Organelle DNA variation and systematic relationships in the genusZea: teosinte. Proc. Natl. Acad. U.S.A. 76: 4220–4224.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Wilkes, H. G. 1967. Teosinte: the closest relative of maize. Bussey Inst, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  33. —. 1970. Teosinte introgression in the maize of the Nobogame valley. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 22:297- 311.

    Google Scholar 

  34. —. 1977. Hybridization of maize and teosinte, in Mexico and Guatemala and the improvement of maize. Econ. Bot. 31:254–293.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to John Doebley.

Additional information

Paper No. 10479 of the Journal Series of the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Raleigh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Doebley, J., Goodman, M.M. & Stuber, C.W. Patterns of isozyme variation between maize and Mexican annual teosinte. Econ Bot 41, 234–246 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02858971

Download citation

Keywords

  • Maize
  • Economic Botany
  • Maize Field
  • Wild Form
  • Isozyme Variation