Skip to main content
Log in

Catnip and the catnip response

  • Published:
Economic Botany Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Fourteen chemical compounds from diverse biological sources elicit a unique pattern of behavior in most species of the family Felidae. These chemicals may be grouped into 7-methylcyclopentapyranones, 7-methyl-2-pyrindines, and 4-methylbenzofuranones. They may function as either hallucinogens or cross-react with naturally occurring social odors.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Literature Cited

  • Albone, E. S. 1975. Dihydroactinidiolide in the supracaudal scent gland of red fox. Nature 256:575.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, G. Eglinton, J. M. Walker, and G. C Ware. 1974. The anal sac secretion of the red fox(Vulpes vulpes): its chemistry and microbiology. A comparison with the anal sac secretion of the lion(Panthern leo). Life Sci. 14:387–400.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, and T. O. Grönneberg. 1977. Lipids of the anal sac secretions of the red fox,Vulpes vulpes, and of the lion,Panthera leo. J. Lipid Res. 18:474–479.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, S., and J. K. Jones. 1967. Recent mammals of the world. Ronald Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arctander, S. 1969. Perfume and flavor chemicals (aroma chemicals). S. Arctander, Montclair, NJ.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, W. C., A. K. Bose, R. M. Ikeda, R. H. Newman, H. V. Secor, and C. Varsel. 1968. The isolation from tobacco of 2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexylideneactic acid γ-lactone and its synthesis. J. Org. Chem. 33:2819.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baslas, R. K. 1970. Chemistry of Indian essential oils-Part IX. Flavour Industr. 1:475–478.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bateman, J. 1971. Animal traps and trapping. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bates, R. B., E. J. Eisenbraun, and S. M. McElvain. 1958. The configurations of the nepetalactones and related compounds. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80:3420–3424.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, and C. W. Siegel. 1963. Terpenoids.Cis-trans- andTrans-cis-nepetalactones. Experientia 19:564–565.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beaupin, C., R. Granger, J.-C. Rossi, J. Passet, and L. Peyron. 1977. L’huile essentielle deTeucrium marum Linnaeus de Corse. Rivista Ital. Essenze, Profumi, Piante Off., Aromi, Saponi, Cosmet., Aerosol 59:369–373.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, J. C. Rossi, J. Passet, R. Granger, and L. Peyron. 1978. Monoterpenes cyclopentaniques: synthèse des dolichodials et de leurs analogues structuraux. Rivista Ital. Essenze, Profumi, Piante Off., Aromi, Syndets, Saponi, Cosmet., Aerosols 60:93–96.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • -, -, -, -, and -. 1979. Cyclopentanic monoterpens: synthesis of dolichodial and of some structural analogs. Pages 269–271in VII International Congress of Essential Oils, October 7–11, 1977, Kyoto, Japan.

  • Bellas, T. E., W. V. Brown, and B. P. Moore. 1974. The alkaloid actinidine and plausible precursors in defensive secretions of rove beetles. J. Insect Physiol. 20:277–280.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bicchi, C., M. Mashaly, and P. Sandra. 1984. Constituents of essential oil ofNepeta nepetella. Pl. Med. 50:96–98.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, P. Sandra, M. Schelfaut, and M. Verzele. 1983. Studies on the essential oil ofValeriana celtica L. J. High Resolution Chromatogr. & Chromatogr. Commun. 6:213–215.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bricout, J., R. Viani, F. Müggler-Chavan, J. P. Marion, D. Reymond, and R. H. Egli. 1967. Sur la composition de l’arôme de thé noir. Helv. Chem. Acta 50:1517–1522.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Buffon, G. L. L. de. 1756. Histoire naturelle, generale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi, vol. 6. L’Imprimerie Royale, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, J. F., D. Bindra, H. Krebs, and R. P. Ferenchak. 1969. Responses of single units of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus to environmental stimuli. Physiol. & Behav. 4:183–187.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carley, W. M. 1969. Move over tabby: youths find catnip has psychedelic jolt. Wall Street J. 19 February: 1.

  • Cavill, G. W. K. 1960. The cyclopentanoid monoterpenes. Rev. Pure Appl. Chem. 10:169–183.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, and D. V. Clark. 1967. Insect venoms, attractants, and repellents-VIII. Isodihydronepetalactone. J. Insect. Physiol. 13:131–135.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —. 1971. Ant secretions and cantharides. Pages 271–305in M. Jacobson and D. G. Crosby, eds., Naturally occurring insecticides. Marcel Dekker, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, D. L. Ford, and H. D. Locksley. 1956a. Iridodial and iridolactone. Chem. & Industr. 1956:465.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. 1956b. The chemistry of ants. I. Terpenoid constituents of some AustralianIridomyrmex species. Austral. J. Chem. 9:288–293.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, and H. Hinterberger. 1960. The chemistry of ants. IV. Terpenoid constituents of someDolichoderus andIridomyrmex species. Austral. J. Chem. 13:514–519.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, and E. Houghton. 1974. Volatile constituents of the Argentine ant,Iridomyrmex phumilis. J. Insect Physiol. 20:2049–2059.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, F. J. McDonald, and P. J. Williams. 1976. Isolation and characterization of dolichodial and related compounds from the Argentine ant,Iridomyrmex humilis. Insect Biochem. 6:483–490.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, and H. D. Locksley. 1957. The chemistry of ants. II. Structure and configuration of iridolactone (isoiridomyrmecin). Austral. J. Chem. 10:352–358.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, P. L. Robertson, J. J. Brophy, R. K. Duke, J. McDonald, and W. D. Plant. 1984. Chemical ecology of the meat ant,Iridomyrmex purpureus sens, strict. Insect Biochem. 14:505–513.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cionga, E., V. Popesco, O. Contz, and L. Boniforti. 1976. The alkaloids fromValeriana officinalis: identification of actinidine. Pages 299–302in A. Frigerio and N. Castagnoli, eds., Advances in mass spectrometry in biochemistry and medicine, vol. 1. Spectrum Publ., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Constance, L. 1941. The genusNemophila Nutt. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 19:341–398.

    Google Scholar 

  • Demole, E., and P. Enggist. 1968. Synthèse des (±)-loliolide, (±)-actinidiolide, (±)-dihydroactinidiolide et érivés à partir d’acide homosafranique. Phytooxygénation sensibilisée de homosafranate de méthyle. Helv. Chim. Acta 51:481–494.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, and M. Stoll. 1969. Sur les constituants odorants de l’essence absolue de Cassie(Acacia farnesiana Willd.). Helv. Chem. Acta 52:24.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dettner, K. 1983. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Wehrchemie und Drüsenmorphologie abdominaler Abwehrdrüsen von Kurzflüglern aus dem Subtribus Philonthina (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). Z. Naturforsch. 38c:319–328.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dickinson, E. M., and G. Jones. 1969. Pyrindane alkaloids fromTecoma stans. Tetrahedron 25:1523–1529.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dohnal, B. 1976. Investigations on some metabolites ofTecoma stans Juss. callus tissue. Part II. Chromatographical analysis of alkaloid and quinone compounds. Acta Soc. Bot. Polon. 45:369–381.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dorp, D. A. van, R. Klok, and D. H. Nugteren. 1973. New macrocyclic compounds from the secretions of the civet cat and the musk rat. Recueil Trav. Chim. Pays-Bays 92:915–928.

    Google Scholar 

  • Earle, A. M. 1922. Old-time gardens newly set forth. Macmillan Co., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberg, J. F., and D. G. Kleiman. 1972. Olfactory communication in mammals. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 3:1–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenbraun, E. J., C. E. Browne, R. L. Irvin-Willis, D. J. McGurk, E. L. Eliel, and D. L. Harris. 1980. Structure and stereochemistry of the 4aß,7α,7aß-nepetalactone fromNepeta mussinii and its relationship to the 4aα,7α,7aα- and 4aα,7α,7aß-nepetalactones fromN. cataria. J. Org. Chem. 45:3811–3814.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • -, R. L. Irvin, and D. J. McGurk. 1974. The chemistry of the nepetalactones fromNepeta cataria andNepeta mussinii. Paper 149in VI International Congress of Essential Oils, San Francisco, California, September 8–12, 1974.

  • Eisner, T. 1964. Catnip: its raison d’être. Science 146:1318–1320.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Elliott, R. 1966. Of marjorams and dittanies. Bull. Alpine Gard. Soc. Gr. Brit. 34:198–205.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ewer, R. F. 1968. Ethology of mammals. Plenum Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. 1973. The carnivores. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fairchild, D. 1906. Cats as plant investigators. Science 24:498–499.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Farnsworth, N. R. 1968. Hallucinogenic plants. Science 162:1086–1092.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —. 1969. Some hallucinogenic and related plants. Pages 367–399in J. E. Gunckel, ed., Current topics in plant science. Academic Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Farrer, R. 1930. The English rock-garden. T. C. and E. C. Jack, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finbert, E.-J. 1960. Les chats. Libr. Hatchette, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fujino, A. 1960. Chemical components in matatabi. III. The structure of actinidine [in Japanese]. J. Chem. Soc. Japan, Pure Chem. Sect. 81:1327–1332.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fusco, R., R. Trave, and A. Vercellone. 1955. Ricerche sull’iridomirmecina, l’insetticida naturale secreto dallaIridomyrmex humilis Mayr. Chim. & l’lndustr. 37:251–258.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gams, H. 1927.Teucrium. Pages 2522–2537in G. Hegi, ed., Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa, vol. 5. J. F. Lehmanns, München.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garnier, G., L. Bézanger-Beauquesne, and G. Debraux. 1961. Ressources médicinales de la flore Française. Vigot Frères Éditeurs, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Glancey, R. M., J. Rocca, C. S. Lofgren, and J. Tumlinson. 1984. Field tests with synthetic components of the queen recognition pheromone of the red imported fire ant,Solenopsis invicta. Sociobiology 9:19–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greer, M. B. 1966. Anal sacs of the cat(Felis domesticus). Amer. J. Veterin. Res. 27:773–781.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grieve, M. 1967. A modern herbal. Hafner Publ. Co., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gross, D., W. Berg, and H. R. Schütte. 1972. Über das vorkommen monoterpenoider Pyridinalkaloide inActinidia arguta undTecoma radicans. Phytochemistry 11:3082–3083.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, G. Edner, and H. R. Schütte. 1971. Über monoterpenoide Valeriana-Alkaloide. Arch. Pharm. & Ber. Deutsch Pharm. Ges. 304:19–27.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta, Y. N., K. K. Baslas, and R. N. S. Chauhan. 1971. Chemical examination of essential oil from the plantNepeta leucophylla. Indian Oil Soap J. 36(9):257–267.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hammouda, Y., and J. LeMen. 1963. Sur la técostidine: nouvel alcaloïde duTecoma stans Juss. (4e mémoire). Bull. Soc. Chim. France 1963:2901–2902.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hano, K. 1967.Actinidia polygama—its pharmacological studies on the effective components [in Japanese]. Tampakushitsu, Kakusan, Koso 12(1):10–16.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Harney, J. W., I. M. Barofsky, and J. D. Leary. 1978. Behavioral and toxicological studies of cyclopentanoid monoterpenes fromNepeta cataria. Lloydia 41:367–374.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hart, B. L. 1974. The catnip response. Feline Practice 4(6):8, 12.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, and M. G. Leedy. 1985. Analysis of the catnip response: mediation by olfactory system, not vomeronasal organ. Behav. & Neural Biol. 44:38–46.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hatch, R. C. 1972. Effect of drugs on catnip(Nepeta cataria)—induced pleasure behavior in cats. Amer. J. Veterin. Res. 33:143–145.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hayashi, T. 1968. Motor reflexes of cats toActinidia polygama (Japan) and to catnip (U.S.A.). Pages 351–358in N. N. Tanyolaç, ed., Theories of odor and odor measurement. N. N. Tanyolaç, Istanbul.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hill, J. O., E. J. Pavlik, G. L. Smith, G. M. Burghardt, and P. B. Coulson. 1976. Species-characteristic responses to catnip by undomesticated felids. J. Chem. Ecol. 2:239–253.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hixon, R. M. 1922. Phytochemical notes. No. 88. Oil of catnip. J. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 11:96–98.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoffer, A., and H. Osmond. 1967. The hallucinogens. Academic Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hottes, A. C. 1947. Climbers and ground covers. A. T. de la Mare Co., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ina, K., Y. Sakato, and H. Fukami. 1968. Isolation and structure elucidation of theaspirone, a component of tea essential oil. Tetrahedron Lett. 1968:2777.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, B., and A. Reed. 1969. Catnip and the alteration of consciousness. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 207:1349–1350.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Janot, M.-M., J. Guilhem, O. Contz, G. Venera, and E. Cionga. 1979. Contribution à l’étude des alcaloïdes de la valériane(Valeriana officinalis L.): Actinidine et naphtyridylméthylcétone, nouvel alcaloïde. Ann. Pharm. Franç. 37:413–420.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jefson, M., J. Meinwald, S. Nowicki, K. Hicks, and T. Eisner. 1983. Chemical defense of a rove beetle(Creophilus maxilosus). J. Chem. Ecol. 9:159–180.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, R. D., and G. R. Waller. 1971. Isolation of actinidine fromValeriana officinalis. Phytochemistry 10:3334–3335.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kaneko, H., and K. Ijichi. 1968. The aroma of cigar tobacco. Part I. Isolation of 2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexylidene-1-acetic acid lactone (dihydroactinidiolide) from ether extract of cigar leaves. Agr. Biol. Chem. 32:1337.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kartesz, J. T., and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland, Volume II. The biota of North America. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Katahira, K., and E. Iwai. 1975. Effect of unilateral lesion of amygdala on unmanifested response to matatabi(Actinidia polygama) in cats. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 115:137–143.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kling, A., J. K. Kovach, and T. J. Tucker. 1969. The behaviour of cats. Pages 482–512in E. S. E. Hafez, ed., The behaviour of domestic animals. 2nd ed. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lederer, E. 1950. Odeurs et parfums des animaux. Fortschr. Chem. Org. Naturstoffe 6:87–153.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Leyhausen, P. 1960. Verhaltensstudien an Katzen. 2nd ed. Paul Parey, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. 1965. Über die Funktion der relativen Stimmungshierarchie (Dargestellt am Beispiel der phylogenetischen und ontogenetischen Entwicklung des Beutefangs von Raubtieren). Z. Tierpsychol. 22:412–494.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —. 1973. Addictive behavior in free ranging animals. Pages 58–65in L. Goldberg and F. Hoffmeister, eds., Psychic dependence. Definition, assessment in animals and man. Theoretical and clinical implications. Springer-Verlag, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. 1979. Cat behavior: the predatory and social behavior of domestic and wild cats. Transl. B. A. Tonkin. Garland STPM Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Staff of the. 1976. Hortus third. Macmillan Publ. Co., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lissák, K. 1962. Olfactory-induced sexual behaviour in female cats. Pages 653–656in J. W. Duyff, ed., XXII International Congress of Physiological Sciences under the auspices of the International Union of Physiological Sciences, vol. 1. Lectures and symposia. Part II. Symposia XI–XXII. Abstracts Symposium I.P.N.S. Leiden, The Netherlands, September 10–17, 1962. Excerpta Medica Found., Amsterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loudon, J. C. 1836. An encyclopaedia of plants. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Macdonald, D. W. 1985. The carnivores: order Carnivora. Pages 619–722in R. E. Brown and D. W. Macdonald, eds., Social odours in mammals, vol. 2. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  • McColl, I. 1967. The comparative anatomy and pathology of anal glands. Arris and Gale Lecture delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 25th February 1965. Ann. Roy. Coll. Surgeons England 40:36–67.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McElvain, S. M., R. D. Bright, and P. R. Johnson. 1941. The constituents of the volatile oil of catnip. I. Nepetalic acid, nepetalactone and related compounds. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 63:1558–1563.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, and E. J. Eisenbraun. 1955. The constituents of the volatile oil of catnip. III. The structure of nepetalic acid and related compounds. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77:1599–1605.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, P. M. Walters, and R. D. Bright. 1942. The constituents of the volatile oil of catnip. II. The neutral components. Nepetalic anhydride. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 64:1828–1831.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McGurk, D. J. 1968. Studies of volatile compounds from ants. II. Degradation studies and structure proof ofcis, cis-nepetalactone. Ph.D. Thesis. Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (Diss. Abstr. Int. 30B: 1046–1047).

    Google Scholar 

  • —, J. Frost, G. R. Waller, E. J. Eisenbraun, K. Vick, W. A. Drew, and J. Young. 1968. Iridobial isomer variation in dolichoderine ants. J. Insect Physiol. 14:841–845.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meikle, R. D. 1963. Garden flowers. Eyre and Spottiswoode, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meinwald, J. 1954a. The structure of nepetalactone. Chem. & Industr. 1954:488.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. 1954b. The degradation of nepetalactone. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76:4571–4573.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Michael, R. P. 1961. Observations upon the sexual behaviour of the domestic cat(Felis catus L.) under laboratory conditions. Behaviour 18:1–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, P. 1759. The gardeners dictionary. P. Miller, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morton, J. F. 1974. Folk remedies of the Low Country. E. A. Seeman Publ., Miami.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murai, F. 1960. Chemical components in matatabi. II. The structure of matatabilactone [in Japanese]. J. Chem. Soc. Japan, Pure Chem. Sect. 81:1324–1326.

    Google Scholar 

  • Necker, C. 1977. The natural history of cats. Dell Publishing Co., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, D. L. 1968. Methylcyclopentane monoterpenes ofNepeta cataria andActinidia polygama. Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana (Diss. Abstr. 29B:4104–4105).

    Google Scholar 

  • Niebuhr, A. D. 1970. Herbs of Greece. New England Unit, Herb Soc. Amer., Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ockendon, D. J. 1976.Valeriana. Pages 52–55in T. G. Tutin, V. H. Heywood, N. A. Burges, D. M. Moore, D. H. Valentine, S. M. Walters, and D. A. Webb, eds., Flora Europaea. Vol. 4. Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pagnoni, U. M., A. Pinetti, R. Trave, and L. Garanti. 1976. Monoterpenes ofTeucrium marum. Austral. J. Chem. 29:1375–1381.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Palen, G. F., and G. V. Goddard. 1966. Catnip and oestrous behaviour in the cat. Anim. Behav. 14:372–377.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pasteels, J. M., J. C. Braekman, D. Daloze, and R. Ottinger. 1982. Chemical defence in chrysomelid larvae and adults. Tetrahedron 38:1891–1897.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, M. Rowell-Rahier, J.-C. Braekman, and D. Daloze. 1984. Chemical defences in leaf beetles and their larvae: the ecological, evolutionary and taxonomic significance. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 12:395–406.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pelton, J. 1964. A survey of the ecology ofTecoma stans. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 14:53–88.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perry, F. 1972. Flowers of the world. Crown Publ., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Plouvier, V., and J. Favre-Bonvin. 1971. Les iridoïdes et séco-iridoïdes: répartition, structure, propriétés, biosynthèse. Phytochemistry 10:1697–1722.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Preti, G., E. L. Muetterties, J. M. Furman, J. J. Kennelly, and B. E. Johns. 1976. Volatile constituents of dog(Canis familiaris) and coyote(Canis latrans) anal sacs. J. Chem. Ecol. 2:177–186.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Purohit, R. M., and S. S. Nigam. 1959. Chemical examination of the essential oil derived from the leaves ofNepeta hindostana Roth. Saugar, India (City) Univ. J. Pt. II, Sect. A 8:46–49.

    Google Scholar 

  • Regnier, F. E., E. J. Eisenbraun, and G. R. Waller. 1967a. Nepetalactone and epinepetalactone fromNepeta cataria L. Phytochemistry 6:1271–1280.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, G. R. Waller, and E. J. Eisenbraun. 1967b. Studies on the composition of the essential oils of threeNepeta species. Phytochemistry 6:1281–1289.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rix, E. M., and D. A. Webb. 1972.Boschniakia. Page 294in T. G. Tutin, V. H. Heywood, N. A. Burges, D. M. Moore, D. H. Valentine, S. M. Walters, and D. A. Webb, eds., Flora Europaea, vol. 3. Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosenblatt, J. S., and T. C Scheirla. 1962. The behaviour of cats. Pages 453–458in E. S. E. Hafez, ed., The behaviour of domestic animals. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roth, L. M., and T. Eisner. 1962. Chemical defenses of arthropods. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 7:107–136.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sakan, T. 1967. Matatabi(Actinidia polygama Miq.)—The isolations and the structures of its biologically active components [in Japanese]. Tampakushitsu, Kakusan, Koso 12(l):2–9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, A. Fujino, F. Murai, Y. Butsugan, and A. Suzui. 1959a. On the structure of actinidine and matatabilactone, the effect components ofActinidia polygama. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 32:315–316.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, A. Suzui, and Y. Butsugan. 1959b. The structure of matatabilactone. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 32:1154–1155.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —. 1960a. Chemical components in matatabi. I. The isolation of the physiologically active principles, matatabilactone and actinidine [in Japanese]. J. Chem. Soc. Japan, Pure Chem. Sect. 81:1320–1324.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —. 1960b. Chemical components in matatabi. IV. The conversion of matatabilactone into actinidine [in Japanese]. J. Chem. Soc. Japan, Pure Chem. Sect. 81:1444–1445.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, A. Suzui, Y. Butsugan, and Y. Terashima. 1960c. The absolute structure of actinidine. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 33:712–713.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, S. Isoe, S. B. Hyeon, R. Katsumura, T. Maeda, J. Wolinsky, D. Dickerson, M. Slabaugh, and D. Nelson. 1965. The exact nature of matatabilactone and the terpenes ofNepeta cataria. Tetrahedron Lett. 1965:4097–4102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • —. 1967a. The structure of actinidiolide, dihydroactinidiolide and actinidol. Tetrahedron Lett. 1967:1623–1627.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • —, F. Murai, Y. Hayashi, Y. Honda, T. Shono, M. Nakajima, and M. Kato. 1967b. Structure and stereochemistry of boschniakine, boschnialactone, and boschnialinic acid, an oxidation product of boschnialactone. Tetrahedron 23:4635–4652.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, S. Isoe, S. B. Hyeon, and Y. Hayashi. 1969. Biologically active C9C10and C11-terpenes fromActinidia polygama, Boschniakia rossica, andMenyanthes trifoliata [in Japanese]. J. Chem. Soc. Japan, Pure Chem. Sect. 90:507–528.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sakho, M., J. Crouzet, and S. Seck. 1985. Evolution des composés volatils de la mangue au cours du chauffage. Lebensm.-Wiss. & Technol. 18:89–93.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sastry, S. D., W. R. Springstube, and G. R. Waller. 1972. Identification of 5,9-dehydronepetalactone, a new monoterpene fromNepeta cataria. Phytochemistry 11:453–455.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schaffer, J. 1940. Die Hautdrüsenorgane der Säugetiere. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schaller, G. B. 1972. The Serengeti lion. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schultes, R. E. 1969a. Hallucinogens of plant origin. Science 163:245–254.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —. 1969b. The unfolding panorama of the New World hallucinogens. Pages 336–354in J. E. Gunckel, ed., Current topics in plant science. Academic Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sherry, C. J., and P. S. Hunter. 1979. The effect of an ethanol extract of catnip (Nepeta cataria) on the behavior of the young chick. Experientia 35:237–238.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, and J. A. Koontz. 1979. Pharmacologic studies of “catnip tea ”: the hot water extract ofNepeta cataria. Quart. J. Crude Drug Res. 17:68–72.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, T. W. Robinson, and K. Powell. 1981. Catnip (Nepeta cataria): an evaluation of the cold water and acetone-pretreated hot water extracts. Quart. J. Crude Drug Res. 19:31–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Slate, G. L. 1954. Dual-purpose vines for edible fruits and ornamental value. PL & Gard. 10(l):72–75.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, M. R. 1951. Family Formicidae, subfamily Dolichoderinae. Pages 833–838in C. F. W. Meusebeck, K. V. Krombein, and H. K. Townes, eds., Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico—synoptic catalog. U.S.D.A. Agric. Monogr. 2.

  • -. 1958. Family Formicidae, subfamily Dolichoderinae. Pages 139–141in K. V. Krombein, ed., Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico—synoptic catalog. U.S.D.A. Agric. Monogr. 2, First Supplement.

  • -. 1967. Family Formicidae, subfamily Dolichoderinae. Pages 363–365in K. V. Krombein and B. D. Burks, eds., Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico—synoptic catalog. U.S.D.A. Agric. Monogr. 2, Second Supplement.

  • Smith, R. M., J. J. Brophy, G. W. K. Cavill, and N. W. Davies. 1979. Iridodials and nepetalactone in the defensive secretion of the coconut stick insects,Graeffea crouani. J. Chem. Ecol. 5:727–735.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stearn, W. R. 1950.Nepeta mussinii andN. xFaassenii. J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 75:403–406.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevens, K. L., and G. B. Merrill. 1980. Growth inhibitors from spikerush. J. Agric. Food Chem. 28:644–646.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Superweed, M. J. n.d. Herbal highs. Stone Kingdom Syndicate, San Francisco.

  • Sutherland, M. D., and R. J. Park. 1967. Sesquiterpenes and their biogenesis inMyoporum deserti A. Cunn. Pages 147–157in J. B. Pridham, ed., Terpenoids in plants. Academic Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Todd, N. B. 1962. Inheritance of the catnip response in domestic cats. J. Heredity 53:54–56.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —. 1963. The catnip response. Ph.D. Thesis. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Massachusetts.

    Google Scholar 

  • Torssell, K., and K. Wahlberg. 1966. The structure of the principal alkaloid fromValeriana officinalis (L.). Tetrahedron Lett. 1966:445–448.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • —. 1967. Isolation, structure and synthesis of alkaloids fromValeriana officinalis. Acta Chem. Scand. 21:53–62.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tutin, T. G. 1972.Menyanthes. Pages 67–68in T. G. Tutin, V. H. Heywood, N. A. Burges, D. M. Moore, D. H. Valentine, S. M. Walters, and D. A. Webb, eds., Flora Europaea, vol. 3. Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, and D. Wood. 1972.Teucrium. Pages 129–135in T. G. Tutin, V. H. Heywood, N. A. Burges, D. M. Moore, D. H. Valentine, S. M. Walters, and D. A. Webb, eds., Flora Europaea. Vol. 3. Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Waller, G. R., G. H. Price, and E. D. Mitchell. 1969. Feline attractant, ris, cis,trans-nepetalactone: Metabolism in the domestic cat. Science 164:1281–1282.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Weatherston, J. 1967. The chemistry of arthropod defensive substances. Quart. Rev. Chem. Soc. 21:287–313.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • —, and J. E. Percy. 1970. Arthropod defensive secretions. Pages 95–144in M. Beroga, ed., Chemicals controlling insect behavior. Academic Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilder, L. B. 1936. The fragrant path: A book about sweet scented flowers and leaves. Macmillan Co., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wildman, W. C., J. Le Men, and K. Wiesner. 1969. Monoterpene alkaloids. Pages 239–278in W. I. Taylor and A. R. Battersby, eds., Cyclopentanoid terpene derivatives. Marcel Dekker, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson, A. E. 1946. The encyclopedia of trees, shrubs, vines and lawns for the home garden. Blakiston Co., Philadelphia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, E. O. 1963. The social biology of ants. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 8:345–368.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wood, J. G. 1854. Sketches and anecdotes of animal life. George Routledge & Sons, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yoshii, N., K. Hano, and Y. Suzuki. 1963. Effect of certain substances isolated from ‘matatabi’ on the EEG of cat. Folia Psychiat. & Neurol. Jap. 17:335–350.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Tucker, A.O., Tucker, S.S. Catnip and the catnip response. Econ Bot 42, 214–231 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02858923

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02858923

Keywords

Navigation