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Apical dominance

Abstract

Apical dominance is the control exerted by the apical portions of the shoot over the outgrowth of the lateral buds. The classical explanations for correlative inhibition have focused on hormone/nutrient hypotheses. The remarkable progress that has been made in the technology of endogenous hormone quantification in plant tissue has not been accompanied by comparable progress in the elucidation of mechanisms of hormone action in apical dominance. Evidence from hormonal studies suggests that apically produced auxin indirectly suppresses axillary bud outgrowth that is promoted by cytokinin originating from roots/shoots. Significant involvement with other hormones, although less likely, has not been ruled out. Possible changes in tissue sensitivity to hormones should not be overlooked. Auxin-induced oligosaccharide signals originating from the cell walls of shoot tips or polyamines may function as secondary inhibitors to bud growth. Alternatively, apically produced auxin may suppress lateral bud growth by inhibiting auxin export from these buds. Support for a critical role for nutrients in apical dominance keeps resurfacing, especially for auxin-directed nutrient transport and for water as a possible inducing signal for bud outgrowth. Histological and biochemical analyses of lateral buds recently released from apical dominance are urgently needed. The feasibility of manipulating endogenous auxin/cytokinin content in plant tissue by gene insertion and modulation opens the door to exciting approaches as does the use of hormone insensitive/resistant mutants. There is also need to recognize the existence of variability of apical dominance mechanisms among different plant types. The aesthetic and economic implications of understanding apical dominance for the modification of plant structure and form are extremely significant.

Résumé

La dominance apicale est le contrôle exercé par les portions apicales de la pousse sur la croissance des bourgeons latéraux. Les explications classiques jusque là invoquées dans les cas d’inhibition corrélative ont imputé les hormones/substances nutritives. Les progrés technologiques remarquables réalisés dans la quantification des hormones endogènes des tissus végétaux n’ont pas été suivis de progrès comparables concernant la compréhension des mécanismes d’action des hormones dans la dominance apicale. Les résultats des études hormonales suggèrent que l’auxine produite apicalement supprime indirectement la croissance des bourgeons axillaires activée par la cytokinine qui se forme dans les racines et les tiges. Bien que moins probable, l’action significative d’autres hormones n’a pas été écartée. Des changements possibles dans la sensibilité des tissus aux hormones ne doivent pas être negligés. Des signaux oligosaccharides induits par l’auxine et produits par les parois cellulaires des extremités de la pousse ou polyamines peuvent fonctionner comme inhibiteurs secondaires de la croissance des bourgeons. Alternativement, l’auxine produite apicalement peut supprimer la croissance des bourgeons latéraux en inhibitant la sortie d’auxine de ces bourgeons. Des éléments refont surface en faveur d’un rôle critique des substances nutritives dans la dominance apicale, et particuliérement en faveur d’un transport de ces substances dirigé par l’auxine ainsi que de l’eau comme agent inducteur d’un signal pour la croissance des bourgeons. Il devient urgent de procéder à des analyses histologiques et biochimiques de bourgeons latéraux récemment libérés de la dominance apicale. La possibilité de manipuler le contenu d’auxine/cytokinine endogènes dans les tissus végétaux par insertion et modulation de gènes de même que l’utilisation de mutants insensibles aux hormones ouvrent la porte à d’excitantes approches. Les implications économiques et esthétiques résultant de la compréhension de la dominance apicale via la manipulation de la structure et de la forme des plantes sont extrêmement importantes.

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Cline, M.G. Apical dominance. Bot. Rev 57, 318–358 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02858771

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Keywords

  • Botanical Review
  • Ethylene Production
  • Shoot Apex
  • Auxin Transport
  • Apical Dominance