Skip to main content

The medlar (Mespilus germanica, Rosaceae) from antiquity to obscurity

Abstract

Geographical origin, naturalization, range in cultivation, bletting, uses, chemical constituents, etymology, morphology, relationships, hybridization, varieties, and life history of the medlar (Mespilus germanica, Rosaceae), a Eurasian fruit tree, are reviewed. Included are a proximate analysis of the fruit and an anatomical description of the wood. A selected chronology traces the plant’s history to 1753. An appendix covers culture.

Zusammenfassung

Die Mispel (Mespilus germanica,Rosaceae) vom Altertum bis in die Dunkelnde Gegenwart. Besprochen sind der geographische Ursprung, die Naturalisierung, die Verbreitung im Anbau, das Teigigwerden, die Benutzungen, die chemischen Bestandteile, die Etymologie, die Morphologie, die Verwandtschaften, die Kreuzung, die Varietäten, und die Lebensgeschichte der Mispel (Mespilus germanica, Rosaceae), ein eurasiatischer Obstbaum. Eingeschlossen sind eine proximate Analyse des Fruchtes und eine anatomische Beschreibung des Holzes. Eine auserlesene Chronologie verfolgt die Geschichte der Pflanze bis 1753. Ein Anhang fasst die Kultivierung zusammen.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Literature Cited

  1. A. 1889. The medlar. Garden (London) 36:510.

    Google Scholar 

  2. A.D. 1888. Medlar preserve. Garden (London) 33:71–72.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Adams, J. F. 1983. Guerrilla gardening. Coward-McCann, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Addison, J. 1985. The illustrated plant lore. Sidgwick and Jackson, London.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Aelfric. 1970. Grammatica Latino-Saxonica. Included as final, separately paginated section in W. Somer, Dictionarium-Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum 1659. Scolar Press, Menston, England. Reprint of a 17th century edition of a work first published in the 10th century.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Amaral Franco, J. d. 1968.Crataegus L. Fl. Europaea 2:73–77.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Amherst, A. 1896. A history of gardening in England. 2nd ed. Bernard Quaritch, London.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Anderson, E. 1965. The medlar(Mespilus germanica), Dr. Samuel Johnson’s standard for wit. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 53(3): 11–12.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Anne of Brittany. 1861 (“1841”). Le livre d’heures de la Reine Anne de Bretagne traduit du Latin et accompagne de notice inédites par M. L’Abbé Delaunay. L. Curmer, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Anonymous. 1874. Medlar jelly. Garden (London) 5:102.

  11. -. 1878. Medlars. Garden (London) 14:408.

  12. -. 1885. Fasciated medlar. Gard. Chron. II. 23:112, 113 (Fig. 21).

  13. -. 1888. Mespilus (medlar). Garden (London) 34:64.

  14. -. 1888. The quince and medlar as ornamental trees. Garden (London) 34:409.

  15. -. 1890. [Note on the medlar.] Gard. & Forest 3:280.

  16. -. 1899. Some Sussex fruits. I.—The medlar. Gard. Chron. III. 26:445.

  17. -. 1901. An old medlar. Garden (London) 60:268–269.

  18. -. 1904. The medlar. Garden (London) 66:127.

  19. -. 1906. The medlar. Garden (London) 70:241.

  20. -. 1913. Renovation of an old tree. J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 39:416–417; Fig. 140.

  21. -. 1916. Graft hybrid on medlar. Gard. Chron. III. 60:250.

  22. -. 1917. Gathering of medlars. Garden (London) 81:425.

  23. -. 1917. Storing medlars. Garden (London) 81:414.

  24. -. 1918. Gathering medlars. Garden (London) 82:457.

  25. -. 1942. The medlar. Gard. Chron. III. 111:22.

  26. -. 1982. A medlar medley. Pharm. J. 229(6190):192.

  27. Bacon, F. 1944. The essayes or counsels civill & morall. Heritage Press, New York. Reprint of a work first published in 1597.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Bailey, L.H. 1944.Mespilus. Standard cyclopedia of horticulture 2:2043–2044. Macmillan, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Baillon, H. 1867-1869. Histoire des plantes. Vol. 1. L. Hachette, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Ball, P.W. 1968.Mespilus L. Fl. Europaea 2:31.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Banks, J. 1815. On the forcing-houses of the Romans, with a list of the fruits cultivated by them, now in our gardens. Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1:147–156.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Baragaño de Mosqueda, M. 1968. Vino de níspero. Acta Ci. Venez. 19(l):70. [Achras sapota L.]

    Google Scholar 

  33. Baron, R.C. ed. 1987. The garden and farm books of Thomas Jefferson. Fulcrum, Golden, CO.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Bauhin, J., and J. H. Cherlero. 1650. Historia plantarum universalis. Vol. 1. Fr. Lud. a Graffenried, Ebroduni.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Baxter, W. 1843. British phaenogamous botany. Vol. 6. The author, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Bean, W.J. 1911. Graft hybrids. Kew Bull. 1911:267–269; 2 pls.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Bean, W.J.. 1981. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles. Vol. 1. St. Martin’s, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Beauverie, J. 1905. Le bois. Fasc. 2. Gauthier-Villars, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Bechstein, J.M. 1821. Forstbotanik. 4th ed. In der Hennings’schen Buchhandlung, Gotha.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Becker, A. 1982. Wer hilft der deutschen Mispel? Deutsche Baumschule 12/82:452–453.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Begemann, H. F. 1963. Lexicon der Nutzhölzer. Emmi Kittel, Mering.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Beisly, S. 1864. Shakspere’s garden. Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green, London.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Benk, E. 1985. Wildfrüchte als Rohware für Konfitüren und Gelees. Gordian 85(7, 8):152–154.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Benk, E.. 1986. Weniger bekannte Wildfrüchte. Flüssiges Obst 53:58–60.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Benson, M.D. 1964. Neglected fruits: medlar and persimmon. Horticulture 42(11):15.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Bergann, F. 1951. HaberlandtsCrataegomespilus-Studien, ein Beitrag zur Frage der vegetativen Hybridisation. Züchter 21:245–253.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. —. 1956. Untersuchungen an den Blüten und Früchten der Crataegomespili und ihrer Eltern. Flora 143:219–268.

    Google Scholar 

  48. —, and L. Bergann. 1984. Gelungene experimentelle Synthese zweier neuer Propfchimären—die Rotdornmispeln von Potsdam: +Crataegomespilus potsdamiensis cv. ‘Diekto’, cv. ‘Monekto’. Biol. Zentralb. 103:283–293.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Bergk, T. 1915. Poetae lyrici graeci. Pars II. Poetae elegiaci et iambographi. B. Teubner, Leipzig.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Bernal, A. A. 1976. Hormone treatments and the accelerated ripening of the medlar. Anales Inst. Nac. Invest. Agrar., Ser.: Tecnol. Agrar. (Spain) 1976(3):133–143. [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.]

    Google Scholar 

  51. Bersch, -. 1896. Ueber die Zusammensetzung der Mispel. Apotheker-Zeitung 11:759. [French translation in Repert. Pharm. III. 9:19–20. 1897.]

    Google Scholar 

  52. Bianchini, F., and F. Corbetta. 1976. The complete book of fruits and vegetables. Crown Publishers, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Biever, A. H. 1924. The Jesuits in New Orleans and the Mississippi Valley. Hauser Printing Company, New Orleans.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Bircher, W. H. 1960. Gardens of the Hesperides. Anglo-Egyptian Bookshop, Cairo.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Bischoff, G. W. 1833. Handbuch der botanischen Terminologie. Johann Leonhard Schrag, Nürnberg.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Blackburne-Maze, P. 1979. Unusual fruit trees. Amateur Gard. 94(4897): 19.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Blaha, J. 1975. Chemical composition and nutritive value of special fruit crops. Sborn. Uvti—Zahradn. (Praha) 2(1):5–10. [In Czech.]

    Google Scholar 

  58. Blaja, D., et al. 1964. Pomologia Republicii Populare Romine. Vol. 3. Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Romine, Bucharest.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Bois, D. 1928. Les plantes alimentaires. Vol. 2. Phanérogames fruitières. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Boisacq, E. 1950. Dictionnaire étymologique de la lanque Grecque. 4th ed. Carl Winter, Heidelberg.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Bonnier, G. 1920. Flore complète illustrée en couleurs de France [,] Suisse et Belgique. Vol. 4. Delachaux et Niestlé, Neuchatel.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Borden, A. R., {jrJr.} 1982. A comprehensive Old-English dictionary. University Press of America, Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Borg, J. 1922. Cultivation and diseases of fruit trees in the Maltese Islands. Government Printing Office, Malta.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Boulger, G. S. 1889. The uses of plants. Roper & Drowley, London.

    Google Scholar 

  65. —. 1902. Wood. Edward Arnold, London.

    Google Scholar 

  66. —. 1907. Familiar trees. New ed. 2nd ser. Cassell and Company, London.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Brasavola, A. M. 1540. Examen omniu[m] syruporum. Venetiis.

  68. Briggs, B. 1936. Trees of Britain. Lutterworth Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Bromfield, W. A. 1836. A notice of the localities of habitats of some rare British species of plants. Mag. Nat. Hist. 9:85–88.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 1973. 1200 trees & shrubs—where to buy them. Pl. & Gard. 26(2).

  71. Browicz, K. 1968. Distribution of woody Rosaceae in W. Asia II. On the distribution ofMespilus germanica L. Arbor. Kórnickie 13:27–36.

    Google Scholar 

  72. —. 1972.Mespilus L. Fl. Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4:128–129.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Brown, A. G. 1951. The medlar. Roy. Hort. Soc. Fruit Year Book 1951-2(5):85–87.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Bryant, C. 1783. Flora diaetetica. B. White, London.

  75. Bullock, A. 1931. Hardy fruit garden: medlars. Gard. Chron. III. 90:345.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Bunyard, E. A. 1929 The anatomy of dessert. Dulau and Company, London.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Bunyard, G., and O. Thomas. 1904 The fruit garden. Country Life, London.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Burbank, L. 1914 Luther Burbank: his methods and discoveries. Vol. 4. Luther Burbank Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Burbridge, F. W. 1881 Seedless medlar. Gard. Chron., n.s. 16:731.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Burch, D., D. B. Ward, and D. W. Hall. 1988 Checklist of the woody cultivated plants of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extens. Serv., Univ. Florida, Gainesville.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Burgerstein, A. 1896 Weitere Untersuchungen über den histologischen Bau des Holzes der Pomaceen, nebst Bemerkungen über das Holz der Amygdaleen. Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl., Abt. 1, 105:22–31.

    Google Scholar 

  82. —. 1898 Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Holzstructur der Pomaceen. Separat-Abdruck aus dem Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl., Abt. 1, 107.

    Google Scholar 

  83. -. 1898 Xylotomisch-systematische Studien über die Gattungen der Pomaceen. Separat-Abdruck aus dem Jahresberichte des Kaiserl. Königl. zweiten Staatsgymnasiums im II. Gemeindebezirke in Wien 1898

  84. —. 1899 Beiträge zur Xylotomie der Pruneen. Separat-Abdruck aus dem Verh. Kaiserl. Königl. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien [Jahrgang 1899.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Burney, B. 1980 Exotics: a guide to some that may be grown in New Zealand. Part 1. New Zealand J. Agric. 140(2):58–59, 62.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Burroughs, L. F. 1960 The free amino-acids of certain British fruits. J. Sci. Food Agric. 11:14–18.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. —. 1970 Amino acids. Chapter 5in A. C. Hulme, ed., The biochemistry of fruits and their products. Vol. 1. Academic Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Bush, F. A. 1939 Hardy fruit garden: medlars. Gard. Chron. III. 106:330.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Butzke, H. 1986 Zur geographischen und standörtlichen Verbreitung der echten Mispel(Mespilus germanica L.) im westlichen Teil Nordrhein-Westfalens und über die Eigenschaften des Mispelholzes. Decheniana 139:178–192.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Byatt, J. I. 1976 Pollen morphology of some European species ofCrataegus L. and ofMespilus germanica L. (Rosaceae). Pollen & Spores 18(3):335–349.

    Google Scholar 

  91. —, I. K. Ferguson, and B. G. Murray. 1977 Intergeneric hybrids betweenCrataegus L. andMespilus L.: a fresh look at an old problem. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 74:329–343.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Camus, J. 1894 Les noms des plantes du Livre d’Heures d’Anne de Bretagne. J. Bot. (Morot) 8:325–335, 345–352, 366–375, 396–401.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Candolle, A. [L.P.P.] de. 1855 Géographie botanique raisonnée. Vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  94. —. 1890 Origin of cultivated plants. D. Appleton, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Candolle, A. P. de. 1813 Théorie élémentaire de la botanique. Déterville, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  96. —. 1825Mespilus. Prodromus 2:633.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Camoy, A. 1959 Dictionnaire étymologique des noms grecs de plantes. Publications Universitaires and Institut Orientaliste, Louvain.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Caserio, E. 1934 Das Vitamin in der Mispel und in der Alchechengifrucht (Judenkirsche). Z. Vitaminforsch. 3:93–97.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. Castle, L. 1906 Medlars. Garden (London) 69:183.

    Google Scholar 

  100. C. B. 1914 Recipe for medlar jelly. Garden (London) 78:552.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Cecil, E. 1910 A history of gardening in England. John Murray, London.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Chaucer, G. 1957 The Canterbury tales. Modern Library, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Clapham, A. R., T. G. Tutin, and D. M. Moore. 1987 Flora of the British Isles. 3rd ed. Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Cobbett, W. 1819 The American gardener. Manufacturing Co., Claremont, NH.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Coleman, W. 1885 The medlar. Garden (London) 28:473.

  106. Columella, L. J. M. 1955 On agriculture and trees. 3 vol. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Contenau G. 1950 La vie quotidienne à Babylone et en Assyrie. Librairie Hachette, [Paris].

  108. Contenau G. 1954 Everyday life in Babylon and Assyria. Edward Arnold, London.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Cook, H. H. 1942 Medlars. Gard. Chron. III. 112:136.

  110. Coutanceau, M. 1967 Le néflier. Jard. France 140(9):332–335.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Couverchel, — 1852 Traité complet des fruits. New ed. Bouchard-Huzard, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Cowley, A. 1678 Poemata Latina. 2nd ed. J. Martyn, London.

    Google Scholar 

  113. Crisp, F. 1924 Mediaeval gardens. 2 vol. John Lane, London.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Croce, F. M. 1948 El níspero europeo. Vinos Viñas Frutas 44(514):33, 35, 37–38.

    Google Scholar 

  115. Culpeper, N. 1700. The English physician enlarged. J. Churchill, London.

    Google Scholar 

  116. — 1841 The complete herbal. New ed. Thomas Kelly, London.

    Google Scholar 

  117. Cuzzocrea, G. 1951 Sulla presenza di una forma combinata delta vitamina nei frutti acidi. Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sperim. 27:1437–1438.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  118. Daubeny, C. 1857 Lectures on Roman husbandry. The University, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  119. Davis, B. 1987 The gardener’s illustrated encyclopedia of trees and shrubs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Dictionnaire raisonné-universel de matiere médicale. 1773 Vol. 3. P. Franç. Didot, Paris.

  121. Dietrich, D. 1838 Forstflora. August Schmid, Jena.

    Google Scholar 

  122. Dietrich, F. G. 1806 Vollständiges Lexicon der Gärtnerei und Botanik. Vol. 6. Gebrüder Sädicke, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Dioscorides. 1907. De materia medica. Vol. 5. Apud Weidmannos, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  124. — 1934 The Greek herbal of Dioscorides. University Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  125. Dobrochaeva, D. M. 1954Mespilus L. Fl. URSR 6:48–49.

    Google Scholar 

  126. Drugulin, W. 1848 Pflanzenstoffe. Vol. 2. Scheible, Rieger, and Sattler, Stuttgart.

    Google Scholar 

  127. D.T.F. 1888 Medlar jelly. Garden (London) 33:173.

  128. -. 1889 Medlars. Garden (London) 36:486.

  129. Duhamel du Monceau, [H.L.]. 1755 Traité des arbres et arbustes qui se cultivent en France. Vol. 2. H. L. Guerin and L. F. Delatour, Paris.

  130. Duhamel du Monceau, [H.L.]. 1809 Traité des arbres et arbustes que l’on cultive en France. Vol. 4. New ed. Étienne Michel, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  131. Dunn, S. T. 1905 Alien flora of Britain. West, Newman and Co., London.

    Google Scholar 

  132. Edlin, H. L., and M. Nimmo. 1956 Treasury of trees. Countrygoer Books, Manchester.

    Google Scholar 

  133. Eiselt, M. 1944 Mehr Beachtung auch der Mispel. Blumen—Pflanzenbau & Gartenwelt 48(21 Jan):21.

    Google Scholar 

  134. Ellacombe, H. N. 1877 The plant-lore of Shakespeare (mallows-medlar). Garden (London) 11:458–459.

    Google Scholar 

  135. — 1878 The plant-lore and garden-craft of Shakespeare. The author, Exeter.

    Google Scholar 

  136. Elwes, H. J., and A. Henry. 1913 The trees of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 7. Privately printed, Edinburgh.

    Google Scholar 

  137. Evreinoff, V.-A. 1946 Kaki, cognassier, noisetier, néflier. Terre d’Oc 28:853–860.

    Google Scholar 

  138. — 1953 Notes sur l’origine, la biologie et les variétés du néflier. Rev. Hort. 125:976–979.

    Google Scholar 

  139. —. 1954 Notizen über Ursprung, Biologie und Sorten der Mispel. Deutsche Baumschule 6:260–265.

    Google Scholar 

  140. Fabriani, G., and M. A. Spadoni. 1949 Thiamine in Italian vegetables [and fruits]. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 43:6753–6754.

    Google Scholar 

  141. Fairchild, D. 1938 The world was my garden. C. Scribner’s Sons, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  142. Farmer, A. 1969 The decline of the medlar. New Zealand Gard. 26(10):18–19.

    Google Scholar 

  143. Field, A. 1887 Quinces and medlars in the garden. Garden (London) 32:397.

  144. Figuier, L. 1869 The vegetable world. Cassel, Petter, and Galpin, London.

    Google Scholar 

  145. Fischer, H. 1927 Die heilige Hildegard von Bingen. Münchner Drucke, München.

    Google Scholar 

  146. Fish, T. D. n.d. The hardy-fruit book. L. U. Gill, London.

  147. Folgner, V. 1897 Beiträge zur Systematik und pflanzengeographischen Verbreitung der Pomaceen. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 47:117–125,153–178, 199–206, 296–300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  148. Forsyth, W. 1803 A treatise on the culture and management of fruit-trees. 3rd ed. T. N. Longman and O. Rees, London.

    Google Scholar 

  149. Fraser, H. 1961 Quince and medlar. Gard. Chron. 149:397.

    Google Scholar 

  150. Freeman, M. B. and L. Sipress. 1973-1974. The Unicorn Tapestries. Bull. Metropolitan Mus. Art l:[171]-[224].

    Google Scholar 

  151. Funk and Wagnalls new standard dictionary of the English language. 1962 Funk and Wagnalls Company, New York.

  152. Furrer, E. 1964 Die Mispel(Mespilus germanica L.) in der Innerschweiz. Schweiz. Beitr. Dendrol. 10–12 (1958 –1960):5-l 1

    Google Scholar 

  153. F.W.B. 1892 The medlar tree. Garden (London) 41:465.

    Google Scholar 

  154. Gärtner, G., B. Meyer, and J. Scherbius. 1800 Oekonomisch-Technische Flora der Wetterau. Vol. 2. Phillipp Heinrich Guilhauman, Frankfurt am Main.

    Google Scholar 

  155. Gardner, V. R., F. C. Bradford, and H. D. Hooker, {jrJr.} 1939 The fundamentals of fruit production. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  156. Gayffier, E. d. 1868 Herbier forestier de la France. J. Rothschild, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  157. Gerard, J. 1975 The herbal or general history of plants. Dover, New York. Reprint of a work first published in 1633

    Google Scholar 

  158. Gibbs, R. D. 1974 Chemotaxonomy of flowering plants. Vol. 3. McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press, Montreal.

    Google Scholar 

  159. Godwin, H. 1975 The history of the British flora. 2nd ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  160. Goeschke, F. 1900 Bunte Gehölze. Karl Siegismund, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  161. Goldring, W. 1888 Trees and shrubs. Flowering trees and shrubs.[Leucothoe-Mitraria coccinea]. Garden (London) 34:62–64.

    Google Scholar 

  162. Grant, J. A., and C. L. Grant. 1955 Trees and shrubs for Pacific Northwest gardens. Nourse, San Carlos, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  163. Graumüller, J. C. F. 1815 Handbuch der pharmaceutisch-medicinischen Botanik. Vol. 3. Schöne’schen Buchhandlung, Eisenberg.

    Google Scholar 

  164. Great Soviet Encyclopedia. 1974 Vol. 17. Macmillan, New York.

  165. Greenoak, F. 1983 Forgotten fruit. Andre Deutsch, London.

    Google Scholar 

  166. Gregory, R. P. 1911 Graft hybrids. Gard. Chron. III. 50:161–163, 185–186; Fig. 86–87.

  167. Grieve, P. 1876 The medlar and its conserve. Florist & Pomol. 1876: 176–177.

    Google Scholar 

  168. Grigson, G. 1974. A dictionary of English plant names. Allen Lane, London.

    Google Scholar 

  169. Grindon, L. H. 1864[?]. British and garden botany. F. Pitman, London.

    Google Scholar 

  170. —. 1883. The Shakespeare flora. Palmer and Howe, Manchester.

    Google Scholar 

  171. —. 1885. Fruits and fruit-trees, home and foreign. Palmer and Howe, Manchester.

    Google Scholar 

  172. Grönland, J., and T. Rümpler, ed. 1874. Vilmorinś illustrierte Blumengärtnerei. Wiegandt, Hempel, and Parey, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  173. Hall, J. R. C. 1962. A concise Anglo-Saxon dictionary. University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  174. Hallier, E. 1886. Flora von Deutschland. Vol. 25. Fr. Eugen Köhler, Gera-Untermhaus.

    Google Scholar 

  175. Hariot, T. 1951. A brief and true report of the new found land of Virginia. Clements Library Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Reprint of a work originally published in 1588.

    Google Scholar 

  176. Harrison, S. G., G. B. Masefield, and M. Wallis. 1971. The Oxford book of food plants. Oxford Univ. Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  177. Harvey, J. 1981. Mediaeval gardens. Timber Press, Beaverton, OR.

    Google Scholar 

  178. Heath’s standard French and English dictionary. 1966. D.C. Heath and Company, Boston.

  179. Hedrick, U. P., ed. 1919. Sturtevant’s notes on edible plants. New York Dept. Agrie. 27th Annual Rep. 2(2).

  180. —. 1922. Cyclopedia of hardy fruits. Macmillan, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  181. Hegi, G. 1922. Mespilus. Ill. Fl. Mittel-Europa 4(2):739–743.

    Google Scholar 

  182. Hegnauer, R. 1973. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Vol. 6. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel.

    Google Scholar 

  183. Hehn, V. 1877. Kulturpflanzen und Hausthiere in ihren Übergang aus Asien nach Griechenland und Italien sowie in das Übrige Europa. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  184. Henderson, P. 1881. Henderson’s handbook of plants. Peter Henderson, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  185. Henslow, G. 1858. Plants of the Channel Islands. Phytologist 2:633–638.

    Google Scholar 

  186. Hess, H. E., E. Landolt, and R. Hirzel. 1970. Flora der Schweiz. Vol. 2. Birkhäuser, Basel.

    Google Scholar 

  187. Heywood, J. 1867. The proverbs and epigrams of John Heywood. Reprinted from the original (1562) edition, and collated with the second (1566) edition. Spenser Society, Manchester.

    Google Scholar 

  188. H. F. 1945. The medlar. Gard. Ill. 64:573, 576.

    Google Scholar 

  189. Hobson, G. E. 1962. Determination of polygalacturonase in fruits. Nature 195:804–805.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  190. Hoffner, H. A. 1974. Alimenta hethaeorum. American Oriental Society, New Haven, CT.

    Google Scholar 

  191. Hogg, R. 1876-1885. The Herefordshire pomona. Vol. 2. Jakeman and Carver, Hereford.

    Google Scholar 

  192. -, and G. W. Johnson. 1871. The wild flowers of Great Britain. Vol. 6. Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener Office, London.

  193. Hoops, J. 1905. Waldbäume und Kulturpflanzen im germanischen Altertum. Karl J. Trübner, Strassburg.

    Google Scholar 

  194. Horn, W., and E. Born. 1979. The plan of St. Gall. A study of the architecture and economy of, and life in a paradigmatic Carolingian monastery. 3 vol. Univ. California Press, Berkeley.

    Google Scholar 

  195. Ibrajter, D., S. Stanimirovic, and A. F. Damanski. 1963. The metabolism of monosaccharides and organic acids during over-ripening of medlar fruit. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 59:6729–6730.

    Google Scholar 

  196. Iggulden, W. 1893. Hardy fruits. Garden (London) 44:535–536.

    Google Scholar 

  197. Isaacson, R. T. compiler. 1987. Andersen horticultural library’s source list of plants and seeds. Andersen Horticultural Library, [Chanhassen, MN].

    Google Scholar 

  198. Ivanovskaya, L. Y., A. A. Ryabinin, and L. P. Barabanova. 1964. Ursolic acid in plants. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 60:4196.

    Google Scholar 

  199. Jackson, A. B. 1935. Catalogue of the trees and shrubs (excluding rhododendrons) at Borde Hill Sussex in December 1932. University Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  200. Jackson, J. R. 1888. Canes and sticks used in the manufacture of walking sticks, umbrella handles, etc. J. Soc. Arts 36:1036–1038, 1109–1110, 1122–1124.

    Google Scholar 

  201. Jashemski, W. F. 1979. The gardens of Pompeii. Caratzas Brothers, New Rochelle, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  202. Jenkins, D. H. 1943. Medlars here and medlars there. Home Garden 2(4):67.

    Google Scholar 

  203. Jessen, C., ed. 1867. Alberti Magni ex ordine praedicatorum de vegetabilibus libri VII, historiae naturalis pars XVIII. Inpensis Georgii Reimeri, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  204. J.G.H. 1887. Quinces and medlars. Garden (London) 32:455.

    Google Scholar 

  205. Johnson, C. P. 1862. The useful plants of Great Britain. William Kent, London.

    Google Scholar 

  206. Johnson, G. W. 1829. A history of English gardening. Baldwin and Cradock, London.

    Google Scholar 

  207. Jougan, E. 1971. Le néflier. Jard. France, n.s., 1971(8):30–31.

    Google Scholar 

  208. Kains, M. G. 1940. Grow your own fruit. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  209. Kalkman, C. 1973. The Malesian species of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Blumea 21:413–442.

    Google Scholar 

  210. Keeble, F., and A. N. Rawes. 1948. Hardy fruit growing. Macmillan, London.

    Google Scholar 

  211. Kirchner, O. 1888. Flora von Stuttgart und Umgebung. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

    Google Scholar 

  212. Kirk, J.W. C. 1927. A British garden flora. Edward Arnold, London.

    Google Scholar 

  213. Klein, E. 1967. A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  214. Knuth, P. 1908. Handbook of flower pollination. Translated by J. R. Ainsworth-Davis. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  215. Koch, K. 1884. Die Bäume und Sträucher des alten Griechenlands. 2nd ed. R. Jacobsthal, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  216. Kochs, —. 1930. Die Verwendbarkeit von Wild- und Halbfrüchten in der Obstverwertung. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 42: 172–179.

    Google Scholar 

  217. Korshunov, K. N. 1944.Sorbus as a[n] understock for pear. (Abstr.) Bio. Abstr. 18:1567.

    Google Scholar 

  218. Kosteletzky, B. F. 1835. Allgemeine medizinisch-pharmazeutische Flora. Vol. 4. Borrosch and André, Prague.

    Google Scholar 

  219. Kovanda, M. 1965. On the generic concepts in the Maloideae. Preslia 37:27–34.

    Google Scholar 

  220. Krebs, F. L. 1826. Vollständige Beschreibung und Abbildung der sämmtlichen Holzarten. 2 vol. Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.

    Google Scholar 

  221. Krüssmann, G. 1952. Etwas über die Mispel,Mespilus germanica. Deutsche Baumschule 4:43–45.

    Google Scholar 

  222. —. 1976. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs. Translated by M. E. Epp. Vol. 1. Timber Press, Beaverton, OR.

    Google Scholar 

  223. —. 1977. Manual of broad-leaved trees and shrubs. Translated by M. E. Epp. Vol. 2. Timber Press, Beaverton, OR.

    Google Scholar 

  224. Kuhn, S. M., ed. 1980. Middle English dictionary. Part 0.2. Univ. Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

    Google Scholar 

  225. Larsen, G. H. 1946. La pepiniére fruitiére. (Abstr.) Bio. Abstr. 20:20921.

    Google Scholar 

  226. Lasserre, F., and A. Bonnard. 1958. Archiloque fragments. Les Belles Lettres, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  227. Lawalrée, A. 1960.Mespilus L. Fl. Gen. de Belgique, Spermatophytes 3(3):395–396.

    Google Scholar 

  228. Leighton, A. 1986. Early American gardens. Univ. Massachusetts Press, Amherst.

    Google Scholar 

  229. Le Men, J., and H. Pourrat. 1955 Répartition de l’acide ursolique dans les feuilles de diverses Rosacées.—Acide ursolique (cinquieme mémoire). Ann. Pharm. Franç. 13:169–170.

    Google Scholar 

  230. Lemery, N. 1699. Traité universel des drogues simples. Laurent d’Houry, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  231. Lenz, H. O. 1966. Botanik der alten Griechen und Römer. Dr. Martin Sändig, Wiesbaden. Reprint of a work first published in 1859.

  232. Le Sueur, F. 1984. Flora of Jersey. Société Jersiaise, city not indicated.

  233. Levey, R. A. 1955. A azarola: nova fonte de vitamina C. Fazenda 50(8):44–46. [Malpighia punicifolia L.]

    Google Scholar 

  234. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third. Macmillan, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  235. Liddell, H. G., and R. Scott, compilers. 1968 A Greek-English lexicon. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  236. Lindley, G. 1831. A guide to the orchard and kitchen garden. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, London.

    Google Scholar 

  237. —. 1846. A guide to the orchard and fruit garden. With additions of all the most valuable fruits cultivated in America. J. C. Riker, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  238. Lindley, J. 1822. Observations on the natural group of plants called Pomaceae. Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13:88–106.

    Google Scholar 

  239. —. 1839. An introduction to botany. 3rd ed. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, London.

    Google Scholar 

  240. —. 1848. A glossary of technical terms used in botany. Bradbury and Evans, London.

    Google Scholar 

  241. —. 1853. The vegetable kingdom. 3rd ed. Bradbury and Evans, London.

    Google Scholar 

  242. Lindtner, P. 1967. Mispula(Mespilus germanica L.). Ziva [III.] 15:85–86. [In Czech.]

    Google Scholar 

  243. Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.

    Google Scholar 

  244. Lipp, L. F. 1972. Do you know the medlar? PI. & Gard., n.s., 28(1):34.

    Google Scholar 

  245. Longo, B. 1911. Su la nespola senza noccioli. Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1911:265–270.

    Google Scholar 

  246. —. 1912. Sulla pretesa esistenza delie loggie ovariche nella nespola senza noccioli. Nuovo Giom. Bot. Ital. n.s., 19:112–115.

    Google Scholar 

  247. Lord, E. E. 1982. Shrubs and trees for Australian gardens. Revised 5th ed., by J. H. Willis. Lothian Publishing Company, Melbourne.

    Google Scholar 

  248. Loudon, J. C. 1854. Arboretum et fruticetum Britannicum. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. Henry G. Bohn, London.

    Google Scholar 

  249. —. 1865. An encyclopaedia of gardening. New ed. Longmans, Green, and Co., London.

    Google Scholar 

  250. —. 1871. The horticulturist. Edited and revised by W. Robinson. Frederick Warne, London.

    Google Scholar 

  251. —. 1883. Trees and shrubs. Frederick Warne, London.

    Google Scholar 

  252. Mabberley, D. J. 1987. The plant-book. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  253. Maire, R. 1980. Flore de l’Afrique du Nord. Vol. 15. Éditions Lechevalier, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  254. Mansfeld, R. 1959. Vorläufiges Verzeichnis landwirtschaftlich oder gärtnerisch kultivierter Pflanzenarten. Kulturpflanze, Beih. 2.

  255. Marzell, H. 1965. Wörterbuch der deutschen Pflanzennamen. Lieferung 21 (Band 3, Lieferung 2). S. Hirzel, Leipzig.

    Google Scholar 

  256. Mason, -, et al. 1890. Crystallization of fruit in France. Pages 871–891in Fruit culture in foreign countries. U.S. Dept. State Special Consular Rep.

  257. Mattioli, P. A. 1579. Commentaires de M. Pierre André Matthiole medicin senois, sur les six livres de Ped. Dioscor. Guill. Roville, Lyon.

    Google Scholar 

  258. -. 1598. Commentarii in VI. libros Pedacii Dioscoridis. Officina Nicolai Bassaei, [Francofurti].

  259. —. 1611. Kreutterbuch... zum dritten Mal auss sonderm Fleiss gemehret und verfertigt durch Ioachimum Camerarium. [J. Rosen], Franckfurt am Mayn.

    Google Scholar 

  260. M.D. 1850. Medlar marmalade. Gard. Chron. 1850:774.

    Google Scholar 

  261. Meikle, R. D. 1966.Mespilus L. Fl. Irag 2:118–119.

    Google Scholar 

  262. Mérat, F. V., and A.J. De Lens. 1832. Dictionnaire universel de matière médicale. Vol. 4. J.-B. Baillière, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  263. Metcalfe, C. R., and L. Chalk. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. 2 vol. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  264. Metz, W. 1960. Das karolingische Reichsgut. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  265. Meyrick, W. 1790. The new family herbal. Thomas Pearson, Birmingham.

    Google Scholar 

  266. Miller, J. 1722. Botanicum officinale. E. Bell, London.

    Google Scholar 

  267. Miller, P. 1741. The gardeners dictionary. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. The author, London.

    Google Scholar 

  268. —. 1764. The gardeners dictionary. George and Alexander Ewing, Dublin.

    Google Scholar 

  269. Miller, R. H. 1984. The multiple epidermis-cuticle complex of medlar fruitMespilus germanica L. (Rosaceae). Ann. Bot. (London) 53:779–792.

    Google Scholar 

  270. M’Intosh, C. 1855. The book of the garden. Vol. II.—Cultural. Little, Brown, and Co., Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  271. M’Mahon, B. 1806. The American gardener’s calender. The author, Philadelphia.

    Google Scholar 

  272. Mongredien, A. 1870. Trees and shrubs for English plantations. John Murray, London.

    Google Scholar 

  273. Montagné, P. 1977. The new Larousse gastronomique. Crown Publishers, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  274. Morgan, H. A., and F.H.. Burnette. 1893 Horticultural Report. Bull. [Louisiana] State Exp. Sta. II. 22:679–692. [Summary in Exp. Sta. Rec. 5:190. 1895.]

    Google Scholar 

  275. Muir, J. 1889. Medlars. Garden (London) 36:415.

    Google Scholar 

  276. Muller, K. 1884. Praktische Pflanzenkunde. Julius Hoffman, Stuttgart.

    Google Scholar 

  277. Neilson Jones, W. 1934. Plant chimaeras and graft hybrids. Methuen and Co., London.

    Google Scholar 

  278. Nicholson, R. 1988-1989. A museum of garden history. Herb Quarterly 40:19–26.

    Google Scholar 

  279. Nikolov, S., D. Panova, and T. Zareva. 1981. Polyphenol substances inMespilus germanica leaves. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 95: 93794m.

    Google Scholar 

  280. Nobre Capela, M. 1959. Aproveitamento tecnológico da nêspera. Bol. Junta Nac. Frutas 19:107–122.[Eriobolrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.]

    Google Scholar 

  281. Nordlinger, —. 1881. Anatomische Merkmale der wichtigsten deutschen Wald- und Gartenholzarten. Verlag der J.G. Cotta’schen Buchhandlung, Stuttgart.

    Google Scholar 

  282. Osborn, A. 1933. Shrubs and trees for the garden. Ward, Lock and Co., London.

    Google Scholar 

  283. Oxford English dictionary. 1989. 20 vol. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

  284. Palladius, R. T. A. 1873, 1879. Palladius on husbondrie. From the unique ms. of about 1420 A.D. in Colchester Castle. Edited by the Rev. Barton Lodge. N. Trübner, London. Microfiche ed., Early English Text Society, Original Series, no. 52, 72.

  285. Panckoucke, E., and J. P. F. Turpin. 1818. Flore médicale. Vol. 5. L. F. Panckoucke, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  286. Pandey, B. P. 1984. Economic botany. S. Chand and Co., Ram Nagar, New Delhi.

    Google Scholar 

  287. Parkinson, J. 1635. Paradisi in sole paradisus terrestris. Tho. Cotes, London.

    Google Scholar 

  288. Parodi, L. R., ed. 1959.Mespilus. Page 435in Enciclopedia argentina de agricultura y jardineria. Editorial Acme S.A.C.I., Buenos Aires.

  289. Passow, F. 1852. Handwörterbuch der griechischen Sprache. Vol. 2(1). Wilh. Vogel, Leipzig.

    Google Scholar 

  290. Paton, J. B. 1954. Notes from Wisley. J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 79:202–204.

    Google Scholar 

  291. [Paxton, J.] 1868. Paxton’s botanical dictionary. Revised and corrected by S. Hereman. Bradbury, Evans and Co., London.

    Google Scholar 

  292. Pearsall, D. A., ed. 1962. The floure and the leafe. Thomas Nelson and Sons, Edinburgh.

    Google Scholar 

  293. Péchoutre, F. 1902. Contribution a l’étude du développement de l’ovule et de la graine des Rosacées. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. VIII. 16:1–158.

    Google Scholar 

  294. Peck, H. T., ed. 1965. Harper’s dictionary of classical literature and antiquities. Cooper Square Publishers, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  295. Peyre, P. 1945. Les néfliers:Mespilus germanica etEriobotrya japonica. Les Presses Rapides, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  296. P.G. 1884. Ornamental medlars and quinces. Garden (London) 25:419.

    Google Scholar 

  297. —. 1888. Medlar preserve. Garden (London) 33:124–125.

    Google Scholar 

  298. Phillips, H. 1820. Pomarium Britannicum. The author, London.

  299. —. 1823. Pomarium Britannicum. 3rd ed. Henry Colburn, London.

    Google Scholar 

  300. —. 1831. The companion for the orchard. New ed. Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, London.

    Google Scholar 

  301. Phipps, J. B. 1988.Crataegus (Maloideae, Rosaceae) of the southeastern United States, I. Introduction and series Aestivales. J. Arnold Arbor. 69:401–431.

    Google Scholar 

  302. Pierpaoli, I. 1918. Osservazione sul fiore del nespolo e sulla origine della nespola apirena. Atti Reale Accad. Lincei, Rendiconti Cl. Sci. Fis. 27(1):121–125.

    Google Scholar 

  303. —. 1920. Ulteriori osservazioni sulla nespola apirena. Ann. Bot. (Rome) 15:65–86.

    Google Scholar 

  304. Plat, H. 1675. The Garden of Eden. W. and J. Leake, London.

    Google Scholar 

  305. Pliny. 1831. Histoire naturelle de Pline. Bibliothèque Latine-Française. Vol. 9. L. F. Panckoucke, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  306. —. 1855. The natural history of Pliny. J. Bostock and H. T. Riley, translators. Vol. 3. Henry G. Bohn, London.

    Google Scholar 

  307. Plouvier, V. 1946. Biochemical study of some Rosaceae. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 40:7311.

    Google Scholar 

  308. Poiret, J. L. M. 1829. Histoire philosophique, littéraire, économique des plantes de l’Europe. Vol. 6. Ladrange et Verdière, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  309. Poiteau, A. 1846. Pomologie française. Recueil des plus beaux fruit cultivés en France. Vol. 4. Langlois and Leclercq, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  310. Polunin, O. 1969. Flowers of Europe. Oxford Univ. Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  311. Post, G. E. 1932. Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai. Vol. 1. American Press, Beirut.

    Google Scholar 

  312. Postgate, J. N. 1987. Notes on fruit in the cuneiform sources. Bull. Sumer. Agric. 3:115–144.

    Google Scholar 

  313. Poyarkova, A. I. 1971.Mespilus L. Fl. U.S.S.R. 9:316–317. English translation of a work first published in 1939.

    Google Scholar 

  314. Pratt, A. 1905. The flowering plants. Grasses, sedges and ferns of Great Britain. Vol. 1. Frederick Warne, London.

    Google Scholar 

  315. Prior, R. A. C. 1870. On the popular names of British plants. Williams and Norgate, London.

    Google Scholar 

  316. Pritzel, G., and C. Jessen. 1882. Die deutschen Volksnamen der Pflanzen. Phillip Cohen, Hannover.

    Google Scholar 

  317. Quincy, J. 1719. A complete English dispensatory in four parts. A. Bell, London.

    Google Scholar 

  318. Radoev, A., and A. Mladenov. 1961. The concentration of vitamin P substances in wild and cultivated vegetables and fruits. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 55:5801.

    Google Scholar 

  319. Rainier, P. 1826. [Note on “The effect produced on Pears by grafting them on Medlar stock”.] Trans. Hort. Soc. London 6:546.

    Google Scholar 

  320. —. 1826. [Note on using medlar as a stock for pear.] Trans. Hort. Soc. London 6:117.

    Google Scholar 

  321. —. 1828. [Note on using medlar as a stock for pear.] Gard. Mag. 1:308.

    Google Scholar 

  322. Ravenna, C., and V. Babini. 1912. Sulla presenza dell’acido cianidrico libero nelle piante. Atti Reale Accad. Lincei, Rendiconti Cl. Sci. Fis. 21(l):540–544.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  323. Rawton, O. d. 1884. Les plantes qui guérissent et les plantes qui tuent. Jouvet, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  324. R.D. 1888. Medlar jelly. Garden (London) 33:98–99.

    Google Scholar 

  325. —. 1888. Medlar jelly. Gard. Chron. III. 3:151–152.

    Google Scholar 

  326. Rehder, A. 1934. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs. Macmillan, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  327. Reinhardt, L. 1911. Kulturgeschichte der Nutzpflanzen. Ernst Reinhardt, München.

    Google Scholar 

  328. Reitsma, T. 1966. Pollen morphology of some European Rosaceae. Acta Bot. Neerl. 15:290–307.

    Google Scholar 

  329. Ridley, H. N. 1930. The dispersal of plants throughout the world. L. Reeve, Ashford, Kent.

    Google Scholar 

  330. Riley, J. M. 1973. Growing rare fruit in northern California. Calif. Rare Fruit Growers Yearb. 5:67–90.

    Google Scholar 

  331. Roach, F. A. 1985. Cultivated fruits of Britain. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  332. Robert, P. 1970. Dictionnaire alphabétique et analogique de la langue française. Société du Nouveau Littré, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  333. Robertson, K. R. 1974. The genera of Rosaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 55:303–662.

    Google Scholar 

  334. Robinson, F. N, ed. 1961. The works of Geoffrey Chaucer. 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

  335. Robinson, M. 186-. The new family herbal. William Nicholson and Sons, London.

  336. Roelofsen, P. A. 1954. On the softening of fruits ofMespilus germanica. Acta Bot. Neerl. 3:154–160.

    Google Scholar 

  337. Rolland, E. 1904. Flore populaire. Vol. 5. Chez l’Auteur, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  338. Royal Horticultural Society. 1956. Dictionary of gardening. Vol. 3. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  339. Sackville-West, V. 1986. The illustrated garden book. Atheneum, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  340. Saggs, H. W. F. 1969. The greatness that was Babylon. Frederick A. Praeger, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  341. —. 1987. Everyday life in Babylonia and Assyria. Dorset Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  342. St. John Hope, W. H., and G. E. Fox. 1905. Excavations on the site of the Roman city at Silchester, Hants, in 1903 and 1904. Archaeologia 59(2):333–370.

    Google Scholar 

  343. Saintsbury, G. 1963. Notes on a cellar-book. Macmillan, London. Reprint of a work first published in 1920.

  344. Salmon, W. 1682. Pharmacopoeia Londinensis; or, The new London dispensatory. 2nd ed. T. Dawks, London.

  345. Sapozhnikova, E. V. 1963. Accumulation and conversion of ascorbic acid in Azerbaidzhan fruits and berries. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 59:4481.

    Google Scholar 

  346. Sartory, R., E. Weil, and S. Aziz. 1940. The composition of the fruits ofMespilus germanica. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 34:537.

    Google Scholar 

  347. Sassano, G., and G. Carlone. 1964. Una pianta quasi dimenticata: il nespolo comune. Coltiv. Giorn. Vinicola Ital. 110(2):63–66.

    Google Scholar 

  348. Savonius, M. 1985. Acquire the taste [for quinces and medlars]. Amateur Gard. 101(5241):32–33.

    Google Scholar 

  349. Sax, K. 1931. The origin and relationships of the Pomoideae. J. Arnold Arbor. 12:3–22.

    Google Scholar 

  350. Schelle, K. 1915. In Deutschland wild oder verwildert vorkommende Obstgehölze. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1915:70–78.

    Google Scholar 

  351. Schönbeck-Temesy, E. 1969.Mespilus. Fl. Iranica, Lieferung 66:65–66.

    Google Scholar 

  352. Schrader, O. 1901. Reallexikon der Indogermanischen Altertumskunde. Karl J. Trübner, Strassburg.

    Google Scholar 

  353. Schrank, F. v. P. 1789. Baierische Vol. 2. Joh. Baptist Strobel, München.

    Google Scholar 

  354. Seitter, H. 1977. Die Flora des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. Botanisch-Zoologische Gesellschaft Liechtenstein-Sargans-Werdenberg, Vaduz.

    Google Scholar 

  355. Seymour, J. 1841. [Note on medlar.] Gard. Mag. 17:356.

    Google Scholar 

  356. Sharp, T. 1932. The George Herbert medlar. Gard. Chron. III. 91:119.

    Google Scholar 

  357. Sharpe, T. A. 1897. Variety tests in British Columbia. (Abstr.) Exp. Sta. Rec. 8:889.

    Google Scholar 

  358. Shewell-Cooper, W. E. 1946. Old-fashioned fruits. Field 188:353.

    Google Scholar 

  359. Shipley, J. T. 1955. Dictionary of early English. Philosophical Library, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  360. Simmons, A. E. 1972. Growing unusual fruit. Walker and Co., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  361. Simpfendorfer, K. J. 1975. An introduction to trees for south eastern Australia, lnkata Press, Melbourne.

    Google Scholar 

  362. Sinclair, W. A., H. H. Lyon, and W. T. Johnson. 1987. Diseases of trees and shrubs. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  363. Skeat, W. W. 1882. An etymological dictionary of the English language. Macmillan, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  364. Smith, D. 1969. Meddling with medlars. Amateur Gard. 86(4397):31.

    Google Scholar 

  365. S.O.G. 1888. Medlar jelly. Garden (London) 33:144.

    Google Scholar 

  366. Solereder, H. 1908. Systematic anatomy of the dicotyledons. Translated by L. A. Boodle and F. E. Fritsch; revised by D. H. Scott. 2 vol. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  367. Sörrensen, W. 1962. Gärten und Pflanzen im Klosterplan. Pages 193-277in J. Duft, {rded.}, Studien zum St. Galler Klosterplan. Fehr’sche Buchhandlung, St. Gallen.

    Google Scholar 

  368. Southmeadow Fruit Gardens. 1976. Choice and unusual fruit varieties for the connoisseur and home gardener [nursery price list]. Southmeadow Fruit Gardens, Birmingham, MI.

    Google Scholar 

  369. Standard encyclopaedia of southern Africa. 1972. Vol. 7. Nasou Limited, Cape Town.

  370. Stanimirovic, D., D. Nastic, and S. Stanimirovic. 1965. Quantitative variations of glucose, fructose, mevalolactonyl-β-glycoside, sorbitol, and organic acids in the leaf ofMespilus germanica during the vegetation period. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 62:1965–1966.

    Google Scholar 

  371. Stanimirovic, D. L., and S. G. Stanimirovic. 1963. New glucosides fromMespilus germanica leaves. II. Isolation of aglycon, determination of its structure, and the structure of the glucoside. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 62:8117.

    Google Scholar 

  372. Stanimirovic, S. G., and D. L. Stanimirovic. 1965. New glucosides fromMespilus germanica leaves. I. Isolation, structure, and physical and chemical properties of the glucoside. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 62:8117.

    Google Scholar 

  373. —, —, and D. R. Nastic. 1965. Identification of organic acids and saccharides in fruits and leaves of medlarMespilus germanica). (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 63:3310.

    Google Scholar 

  374. Steiger, H. 1951. The medlar tree. Herb Grower Mag. 5:205–209.

    Google Scholar 

  375. Step, E. 1904. Wayside and woodland trees. Frederick Warne, London.

    Google Scholar 

  376. Sterling, C. 1964. Comparative morphology of the carpel in the Rosaceae. III. Pomoideae:Crataegus, Hesperomeles, Mespilus, Osteomeles. Amer. J. Bot. 51:705–712.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  377. Tallack, J. C. 1897. The medlar. Garden (London) 51:44–45.

    Google Scholar 

  378. Tarditi, G. 1968. Archiloco. Edizioni dell’Ateneo, Rome.

    Google Scholar 

  379. Théis, A. de. 1810. Glossaire de botanique. Gabriel Dufour, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  380. Theophrastus. 1916. Enquiry into plants. With an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort. Vol. 1. W. Heinemann, London.

  381. Thieret, J. W. 1977. The Martyniaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 58:25–39.

    Google Scholar 

  382. Thomas, J. J. 1903. The American fruit culturist. 21 st ed. William Wood, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  383. Thompson, R. 1878. The gardener’s assistant. New ed., revised and extended by T. Moore. Blackie and Son, London.

    Google Scholar 

  384. — 1902. The gardener’s assistant. Vol. 5. New ed., edited by W. Watson. Gresham, London.

    Google Scholar 

  385. Thompson, R. C. 1949. A dictionary of Assyrian botany. The British Academy, London.

    Google Scholar 

  386. Thönges, H., and H. Rinder. 1984. Raw materials for the fruit juice industry. Confructa 28(l):8–54.

    Google Scholar 

  387. Tilney-Bassett, R. A. E. 1986. Plant chimeras. Edward Arnold, London.

    Google Scholar 

  388. Tomalin, T. E. 1945. Medlars. Gard. Chron. III. 118:262.

    Google Scholar 

  389. Tricaud, P. 1953. La nèfle et le néflier. Rev. Hon. 125:975.

    Google Scholar 

  390. Tschesche, R., K. Struckmeyer, and G. Wulff. 1971. Über Mevalosid, das Glycosid des (—)(R)-Mevalonsäurelactons aus den Blättern der Mispel und eine einfache Gewinnung von (—)(R)-Mevalonsäurelacton. Chem. Ber. 104:3567–3572.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  391. Turner, W. 1965. Libellus de re herbaria 1538; the names of herbes 1548. Facsimile ed. Ray Society, London.

    Google Scholar 

  392. Tusser, T. 1878. Fiue hundred pointes of good husbandrie. The edition of 1580 collated with those of 1573 and 1577. English Dialect Society, London.

    Google Scholar 

  393. Union of South Africa. 1936. Fruit production in the Union. Report 17: The 1933–34 deciduous fruit export season. Dept. Agric. Bull. 154.

  394. Valev, S., and I. Assenov. 1973. Flora Reipublicae Popularis Bulgaricae. Vol. 5. In aedibus Academiae Scientiarum Bulgaricae, Serdicae.

    Google Scholar 

  395. Van der Pijl, L. 1972. Principles of dispersal in higher plants. 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  396. Vavilov, N. I. 1951. The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants. Chron. Bot. 13.

  397. Vent, W. 1977. Neue Ergebnisse über die Flora des Travertins von Burgtonna. Gleditschia 5:53–57.

    Google Scholar 

  398. Vitman, F. 1770. De medicatis herbarum. Sumptibus Josephi Antonii Archii, Faventiae.

    Google Scholar 

  399. Vogel, R. A. 1758. Historia materiae medicae. Eliam Luzac, Lipsiae.

    Google Scholar 

  400. Vogl, A. E. 1899. Die wichtigsten vegetabilischen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  401. Walsh, G. E. 1890. The loquat and the medlar. Gard. & Forest 3:33.

    Google Scholar 

  402. Waugh, F. A. 1903. Systematic pomology. Orange Judd, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  403. Wealth of India, The. 1962. A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products. Vol. 6. Council of Sci. and Industr. Res., New Delhi.

    Google Scholar 

  404. Webster, A. D. 1889. The medlar(Mespilus germanica). Garden (London) 36:428–429.

    Google Scholar 

  405. Webster’s third new international dictionary. 1986. Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA.

  406. Wein, K. 1914. Deutschlands Gartenpflanzen um die Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts. Beih. Bot. Centralb. 31(2):463–555.

    Google Scholar 

  407. — 1932. Altweltliche Gehölze der europäischen Gärten im Wandel der Jahrhunderte. I. Mittelalter. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 44:130–152.

    Google Scholar 

  408. W.G., and J.C.C. 1887. Quinces and medlars for lawns. Garden (London) 32:478–479.

    Google Scholar 

  409. Wickson, E. J. 1889. The California fruits. Dewey, San Francisco.

    Google Scholar 

  410. Winkler, E. 1842. Vollständiges Real-Lexicon der medicinisch-pharmaceutischen Naturgeschichte und Rohwaarenkunde. Vol. 2. F.A. Brockhaus, Leipzig.

    Google Scholar 

  411. Wood, W. F. 1967. Neglected and forgotten fruits. Gard. Chron. 162(5): 11.

    Google Scholar 

  412. Woodsford, J. C.1939. Concerning medlars. Gard. Chron. III. 106:269.

    Google Scholar 

  413. Wredow, J. C. L. 1812. Oeconomisch-technische Flora Mecklenburgs. Vol. 2. Herold and Wahlstab, Lüneberg.

    Google Scholar 

  414. Wright, W. A., ed. 1936. The complete works of William Shakespeare. Garden City Publishing Company, Garden City, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  415. Wright, W. E. 1930. Hardy fruit garden: medlars. Gard. Chron. III. 88:315.

    Google Scholar 

  416. Wright, W. P., ed. 1902. Cassell’s dictionary of practical gardening. Vol. 2. Cassell, London.

    Google Scholar 

  417. — 1903. Pictorial practical fruit growing. Cassell, London.

    Google Scholar 

  418. Yarusova, N. S., V. A. Bogdanova, and M. Y. Efimova. 1940. Evaluation of the antiscorbutic activity of some food products. (Abstr.) Chem. Abstr. 34:4815.

    Google Scholar 

  419. Ziesak, W. 1963. Unsere Nahrungsmittel. Kosmos, Stuttgart.

    Google Scholar 

  420. Žukovskij, P. M. 1962. Cultivated plants and their wild relatives. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Famham Royal, Bucks, England.

    Google Scholar 

  421. Zwinger, T. 1696. Theatrum botanicum, das ist: neu vollkommenes Kraeuter-Buch. Jacob Bertsche, Franckfurt.

    Google Scholar 

  422. Betts, E. M. 1985. Thomas Jefferson’s garden book 1766–1824. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

    Google Scholar 

  423. Hartwell, J. L. 1982. Plants used against cancer. Quarterman, Lawrence, MA.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Baird, J.R., Thieret, J.W. The medlar (Mespilus germanica, Rosaceae) from antiquity to obscurity. Econ Bot 43, 328–372 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02858732

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02858732

Keywords

  • Economic Botany
  • Vessel Element
  • Axial Parenchyma
  • Arnold Arbor
  • Aegean Island