The crown morphology of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst) was studied from 617 sample trees. In order to model branch and crown descriptors the linear and nonlinear regression methods were extensively used. Results show that the branch length can be fairly well predicted from the distance to the apex of the tree and that the branch spread has a high correlation with the branch length and the insertion angle. Models have been set up to predict the crown ratio, height to the base of the living crown, height to the first living branch and the height to the first dead branch from the usual whole-tree measurements, namely diameter at breast height total height and total age.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Baxter, S.M. & Cannell, M.G.R. 1979. Branch development on leaders of Picea sitchensis. Can. J. For. Res., 8: 121–128
Beadle, C.L., Tablot, H. & Jarvis, P.G. 1982. Canopy structure and leaf area index in a mature Scots pine forest. Forestry. 55: 105–123
Bouchon, J. 1984. Importance des plantations de Douglas et Epic a en France. Revue Forestiere Fran aise. 26, 254–258
Colin, F. & Houllier, F. 1991. Branchiness of Norway spruce in north=eastern France: modeling vertical trends in maximum nodal branch size. Ann. Sci. For. 6: 679–693
Colin, F. & Houllier, F. 1992. Branchiness of Norway spruce in north-eastern France: predicting the main crown characteristics from usual tree measurement. Soumis aux Ann. Sci. For.
Curtis, R.O. & Reukema D.L. 1970. Crown development and site estimates in a Douglas-fir plantation spacing test. Forest Science. 16(3): 287–301.
Dyer, M.E. & Burkhardt H.E. 1987. Compatible ratio and crown height models. Can. J. For. Res.: 17: 572–574
Hashimoto, R. 1990. Analysis of the morphology and structure of crowns in a young sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) stand. Tree physiology, 6: 119–134
Hashimoto, R. 1991. Canopy development in young sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) stands in relation to changes with age in crown morphology and structure. Tree physiology, 8: 129–143
Houllier F., Bouchon, J. et Birot, Y. 1991. Modulisation de la dynamique des peuplements forestierst tat et perspectives. Revue Forestiere Fran aise. XLIII (2): 87–108
Kajihara, M. 1975. Studies on the morphology and dimensions of tree crowns in even-aged stand of sugi. J. Crown form (in Japanese with English summary). J. Jpn. For. Soc., 57: 425–431
Kajihara, M. 1976. Studies on the morphology and dimensions of tree crowns in even-aged stand of sugi. III. Development of crown morphology with growing stage (in Japanese with English summary). J. Jpn. For. Soc., 58: 313–320
Kajihara, M. 1977. Studies on the morphology and dimensions of tree crowns in even-aged stand of sugi. V. Crown surface area and crown volume (in Japanese with English summary). J. Jpn. For. Soc. 59: 233–240
Leban, J.M. et Duchanois G. 1990. SIMQUA: Un logiciel de simulation de la qualit des bois. Ann. Sci. For. 47(5): 483–493
Madgwick Hai, Tann Co et Fu Mao-Yi, 1986. Crown development in young Picea abies stand. J. For. Res., 1: 195–204
MAGUIRE, D.A. & HANN, D.W. 1987. A stem dissection technique for dating branch mortality and reconstructing past crown recession. Forest Science, 33(4): 858–871
Mitchell, K.J. 1975. Dynamics and simulated yield of Douglas fir. Forest Science, Monograph 17, 39p
Ottorini, J.M. 1991. Growth and development of individual Douglas-fir in stands for applications to simulation in silviculture. Ann. Sci. For., 48(6): 651–666
SAS Institute. 1988. SAS/STAT. Guide for personal computers. 1028p.
Satoo, T. and Imoto H. 1979. Modelling crown canopy of an even-aged stand of Cryptomeria japonica from measurement of leaf mass: A new approach to the mophology of forest crown. J. Jpn. For. Soc. 61: 127–134
Tome, M. & Burkhart, H.E. 1989. Distance-dependent competition measures for predicting growth of individual tree. For. Sci., 35: 816–831
(Responsible Editor: Chai Ruihai)
About this article
Cite this article
Changsheng, L., Jianfeng, S., Yongfang, X. et al. Crown morphology of Norway spruce from usual tree measurements. Journal of Forestry Research 9, 8–12 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02856445
- Crown morphology
- Crown ratio
- Norway spruce
- Picea abies Karst
- Wood quality