In the seventies Bandler and Grinder (1975, 1979; Grinder & Bandler, 1976) developed their model of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP). The aim of this model is to facilitate communication between persons (Particularly between counselors and clients). There is a growing body of literature on NLP; it is nowadays even used in a police context (Gray, 1991; Mayers, 1993; Rhoads & Solomon, 1987). What does NLP mean? To what extent does empirical research support the NLP-model? And, to what extent is NLP useful for the police? This article addresses these three questions.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Argyle, M., & Cook, M. (1976).Gaze and mutual gaze. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Argyle, M., & Dean, J. (1965). Eye contact, distance, and affiliation.Sociometry, 28, 289–304.
Baddeley, M. (1989). Neurolinguistic programming: The academic verdict so far.The, Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis, 10, 73–81.
Baddeley, M., & Predebon, J. (1991). Do the eyes have it? A test of neurolinguistic programming’s eye-movement hypothesis.The Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis, 12, 1–23.
Bandler, R., & Grinder, J. (1975).Structure of magic. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
Bandler, R., & Grinder, J. (1979).Frogs into princes. Moab, Utah: Real People Press.
Barnett, E. A. (1990). The contribution and influence of neurolinguistic programming on analytical hypnotherapy.The Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis.11, 1–14.
Beck, C. E., & Beck, E. A. (1984). Test of the eye-movement hypothesis of neurolinguistic programming: A rebuttal of conclusions.Perceptual and Motor skills, 58, 175–176.
Buckner, M., Meara, N. M., Reese, E. J., & Reese, M. (1987). Eye movement as an indicator of sensory components in thought.Journal of Counseling Psychology 3, 283–287.
Cheney, S., Miller, L., & Rees, R. (1982). Imagery and eye movements.Journal of Mental Imagery, 6, 113–124.
Coe W. C., & Scharcoff, J. A. (1985). An empirical evaluation of the neurolinguistic programming model.The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33, 310–318.
Dorn, F. J., Atwater, M., Jereb, R., & Russell, R. (1983). Determining the reliability of the NLP eyemovement procedure.American Mental Health Counsellors Association Journal, 5, 105–110.
Dowd, T., & Hingst, A. (1983). Matching therapists predicates: An in vivo test of effectiveness.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 57, 207–210.
Dowd, T., & pety, J. (1982). Effect of counselor predicate matching on perceived social influence and client satisfaction.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, 206–209.
Einspruch, E. L., & Forman, B. D. (1985). Observations concerning research literature in neurolinguistic programming.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32, 589–596.
Elich, M., Thompson, R. W., & Miller, L. (1985). Mental imagery as revealed by eye movements and spoken predicates: A test of neurolinguistic programming.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32, 622–625.
Ellickson, J. (1981). The effect of interviewers responding differentially to subjects representational systems as indicated by eye movements.Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 2754B.
Falzett, W. C. (1981). Matched versus unmatched primary representational systems and their relationship to perceived trustworthiness in a counseling analogue.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 305–308.
Famer, A., Rooney, R., & Cunningham, J. R. (1985). Hypothesized eye movements of neurolinguistic programming: A statistical artificat.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61, 717–718.
Fromme, D., & Daniell, J. (1984). Neurolinguistic programming examined: Imageny, sensory mode, and communication.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 387–380.
Graunke, B., & Roberts, T. (1985). Neurolinguistic programming: The impact of imagery tasks on sensory predicate usage.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32, 525–530.
Gray, R. (1991). Tools for the trade: Neuro-linguistic programming and the art of communication.Federal, Probation, 55, 11–16.
Grinder, J., & Bandler, R. (1976).Structure of magic II. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
Gumm, W., Walker, M., & Day, H. (1982). Neurolinguistic programming: Method or myth?Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, 327–330.
Hammer, A. (1983). Matching perceptual predicates: Effect on perceived empathy in a counseling analogue.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30, 172–179.
Helm, D. J. (1991). Neuro-linguistic programming: Establishing rapport between the school counselor and the student.Journal of Instructional Psychology, 18, 255–257.
House, S. (1994). Blending NLP representational systems with the RT counseling environment.Journal of Reality Therapy, 14, 61–65.
Mayers, K. S. (1993). Enhancement of psychological testimony with the use of neurolinguistic programming techniques.American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 11, 53–60.
Mercier, M., & Johnson, M. (1984). Representational system predicate use and convergence in counseling Gloria revised.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 161–169.
Pesut, D. J. (1991). The art, science, and techniques of reframing in psychiatric mental health nursing.Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 12, 9–18.
Poffel, S., & Cross, H. J. (1985). Neurolinguistic programming: A test of the eye-movements hypothesis.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61, 1262.
Rhoads, S. A., & Solomon, R. (1987). Subconseious rapport building: Another approach to interviewing.The Police Chief,4, 39–41.
Sharpley, C. F. (1984). Predicate matching in NLP: A review of research on the preferred representational system.Journal of Counseling Psychology 31, 238–248.
Sharpley, C. F. (1987). Research findings on neurolinguistic programming. Nonsupportive data or an untestable theory?Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 103–107.
Thomason, T. C., Arbuckle, T., & Cady, D. (1980). Test of the eye-movement hypothesis of neurolinguistic programming.Perceptual and motor Skills, 51, 230.
Vrij, A. (1991).Misverstanden tussen politie en allochtonen: Social psychologische aspecten van verdacht zijn. Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij.
Vrjj, A. (1996). Misverstanden tussen politie en verdachten in een gesimuleerd politieverhoor.Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie, 51, 137–146.
Vrij, A. (1997a) Interviewing suspects. In A. Menon, A. Vrij, & R. Bull,Accuracy and perceived credibility of suspects, victims, and witnesses. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Vrij, A. (1997a). Nonverbal communication and credibility. In A. Memon, A. Vrij, & R. Bull.Accuracy and perceived credibility of suspects, victims, and witnesses. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Vrij, A. (1997c). Physiological parameters and credibility: The polygraph. In A. Memon, A. Vrij, & R. Bull,Accuracy and perceived credibility of suspects, victims, and witnesses. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wertheim, E. H., Habib, C., & Cumming, G. (1986). Test of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis that eye-movements relate to processing imagery.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62, 523–529.
About this article
Cite this article
Vrij, A., Lochun, S.K. Neuro-linguistic programming and the police: Worthwhile or not?. J Police Crim Psych 12, 25–31 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02813808
- Police Officer
- Verbal Response
- Counseling Psychology
- Representational System
- Criminal Psychology