On the basis of allozyme and cultivation data, and of additional herbarium material, a taxonomic and nomenclatural revision ofTaraxacum sect.PiesisA.J. Richards exKirschner etŠtěpánek is provided. The section is made up of halophilous, sexually reproducing taxa. InT. stenocephalumBoiss. etKotschy,T. pindicumKirschner etŠtěpánek, sp. nov., andT. perenneKirschner etŠtěpánek, sp. nov., a tetraploid chromosome number has been recorded, representing the only known case of sexuality at the tetraploid level in the genus. The complex ofT. stenocephalum, includes some geographically and morphologically extreme populations treated as subspecies: subsp.gumusanicum (Soest)Kirschner etŠtěpánek, comb. nov., subsp.magnumKirschner etŠtěpánek, subsp. nov., and subsp.daralagesicum (Schischk.)Kirschner etŠtěpánek, comb. nov. In addition toT. bessarabicum (Hornem.)Hand.-Mazz., a widely distributed Eurasian species,T. stenocephalum, a complex centred in Transcaucasia and Anatolia, andT. pachypodumH. Lindb., a North African endemic, four new species are described:T. salsumKirschner etŠtěpánek, sp. nov., a diploid endemic confined to E Crimea,T. perenneKirschner etŠtěpánek, sp. nov., a tetraploid sexual species known only from SW Crimea,T. pindicumKirschner etŠtěpánek, sp. nov., a remarkable tetraploid endemic to the Pindos Mts., Greece, andT. salsitatisKirschner, Štěpänek etYirdirimli, sp. nov., an Anatolian diploid species. Furthermore, a hybrid betweenT. salsum andT. bessarabicum from Crimea (documented on the basis of allozyme data elsewhere) is given a binomial,T. xmesohalobiumKirschner etŠtěpánek, nothosp. nov.