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The impacts of the 2004 hurricanes on hydrology, water quality, and seagrass in the Central Indian River Lagoon, Florida

Abstract

Between August 14 and September 26, 2004, four tropical weather systems (Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne) affected the central Indian River Lagoon (IRL). The central IRL received a prodigious amount of rainfall for the 2 mo, between 72 and 83 cm, which is a once-in-50-yr rainfall event. High stream discharges were generated that, combined with wind-suspended sediments, significantly reduced salinities and water transparency. In September, salinities among central IRL segments dropped from 30 psu or more to ≤15 psu, color increased from a low of 10 pcu to ≥100 pcu, and turbidity increased from ≤3 NTU up to 14 NTU. Evidence of the hurricanes' physical effects on seagrasses (burial, no scour) was limited to just one of the more than 25 sites inspected. Within 2 to 3 mo following the hurricane period, most parameters related to water transparency returned to or showed improvement over their prehurricane (February–July 2004) levels. Unseasonably low salinities (<20 psu) and moderately high color (>20 pcu) were observed through spring 2005, largely attributable to a relatively long residence time and a wetter-than-average spring season in 2005. By the end of the study period (July 2006), the central IRL generally showed a continuation of two opposite seagrass trends—an increase in depthlimit coverage but a decline in coverage density—that began before 2004. Also, within a limited reach of the central IRL, there was a temporary shift in species composition in summer 2005 (Ruppia maritima increased asHalodule wrightü decreased). It is likely that the persistently low salinities (not color) in 2004–2005 affected the species composition and coverage density. This study reveals that seagrasses are resilient to the acute effects of hurricanes and underscores the need to reduce chronic, an thropogenic effects on seagrasses.

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Correspondence to Joel S. Steward.

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Steward, J.S., Virnstein, R.W., Lasi, M.A. et al. The impacts of the 2004 hurricanes on hydrology, water quality, and seagrass in the Central Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Estuaries and Coasts: J ERF 29, 954–965 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02798656

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Keywords

  • Secchi Depth
  • Indian River Lagoon
  • South Florida Water Management District
  • Transect Length
  • Seagrass Coverage