Estimation of the bioavailability of zinc and calcium from human, cow's, goat, and sheep milk by an in vitro method

  • Lihua Shen
  • Harry Robberecht
  • Peter Van Dael
  • Hendrik Deelstra
Original Articles


The availability of zinc and calcium from human, cow's, goat, and sheep milk is evaluated by an in vitro method that involves a simulated human gastrointestinal digestion followed by measurement of dialyzability of zinc and calcium. Zinc availability of milk showed the highest value for human milk (15.0%) and the lowest for sheep milk (1.0%), in both whole and skim milk. Calcium availability of the different types of milk did not differ significantly and ranged between 18 and 23%. No significant differences in availability between whole and skim milk were found for both elements, except for zinc in cow's milk.

Index Entries

bioavailability zinc calcium milk 


  1. 1.
    K. M. Hambridge, C. E. Casey, and N. F. Krebs, inTrace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, 5th ed., vol. 2, W. Mertz, ed., Academic, Orlando, Fl, pp. 1–137 (1986).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Research Council,Recommended Dietary Allowances. 10th ed., National Academy Press, Washington, DC, (1989).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Blakeborough, M. J. Jurr, and D. N. Salter,Br. J. Nutr. 55, 209 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. S. N. Rao, and T. Prabhavathi,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31, 169 (1978).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. R. Schricker, D. D. Miller, R. R. Rasmussen, and D. Van Campen,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34, 2257 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. D. Miller, B. R. Schricker, R. R. Rasmussen, and D. Van Campen,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34, 2248 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. B. Zemel,J. Food Sci. 49, 1562 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. G. E. Wolters, H. A. W. Schreuder, G. Van Den Heuvel, H. G. Van Lonkhijsen, R. J. J. Hermus, and A. G. J. Voragen,Br. J. Nutr. 69, 849 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. M. Crews, J. A. Burrell, and D. J. McWeeny,J. Sci. Food Agric. 34, 997 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. M. Minihane, T. E. Fox, and S. J. Fairweather-Tait, in U. Schlemmer, ed., Proceedings Part 2,BIOAVAILABILITY '93, Nutritional, Chemical and Food Processing Implications of Nutrient Availability, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Ernährung, FRG, p. 175 (1993).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. L. Forbes, A. E. Adams, M. J. Arnaud, C. O. Chichester, J. D. Cook, B. N. Harrison, R. F. Hurell, S. G. Kahn, E. R. Morris, J. T. Tanner, and P. Wittaler,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49, 225 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    T. Hazell and I. T. Johnson,Br. J. Nutr. 57, 223 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. F. Hurrell, S. R. Lynch, T. P. Trinidad, S. A. Dassenko, and J. D. Cook,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 47, 102 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. Sandström, A. Almgren, B. Kivistö B, and A Cederblad,J. Nutr. 117, 1898 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. Sandström and A. Almgren, inNutrient Availability: Chemical and Biological Aspects, D. Southgate, I. Johnson, and G. R. Fenwick, eds., Dorset Press, UK, p. 238 (1989).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Robberecht, R. E. Van Grieken, P. A. Van Den Bosch, H. Deelstra, and D. Van Den Berghe,Talanta 27, 1025 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. R. Smith, R. I. Krohn, G. T. Hermanson, A. K. Mallia, F. H. Gartner, M. D. Provensano, E. K. Fujimoto, N. M. Goeke, B. J. Olsen, and D. C. Klenk,Anal Biochem. 150, 76 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Heukeshoven and R. Dernick,Electrophoresis 6, 103 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. Lönnerdal, C. L. Keen, and L. S. Hurley,Ann. Rev. Nutr. 1, 149 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. E. Casey, K. M. Hambidge, and M. C. Neville,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41, 1193 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. Vuori, and P. Kuitunen,Acta Paediatr. Scand. 68, 33 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. A. Paul and D. A. T. Soughgate,McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, HM Stationery Office, London (1978).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. V. Iyengar,IAEA Tech. Rep. IAEA-TEC Doc/269, Vienna, Austria (1982).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. H. M. Verheijden, A. J. H. Schotman, A. S. J. Van Miert, and T. M. Van Duin,Am. J. Vet. Res. 44, 1637 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    B. Holland, I. D. Unwin, and D. H. Buss, eds.,The Fourth Supplement to McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods: Milk Products and Eggs, HM Stationery Office, London. (1989).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    V. S. Packard, ed.,Human Milk and Infant Formula, Academic, New York (1982).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    B. Sandström, B. Cederblad, and B. Lönnerdal,Am. J. Dis. Child. 137, 726 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    B. Sandström, C. L. Keen, and B. Lönnerdal,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38, 420 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. Lönnerdal and C Glazier,Biol. Trace Element Res. 19, 57 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    B. Lönnerdal, A. Cederblad, L. Davidsson, and B. Sandström,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40, 1064 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. E. Casey, P. A. Walravens, and K. M. Hambidge,Pediatrics 68, 394 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. J. Fairweather-Tait, T. E. Fox, S. G. Wharf, and J. Eagles,Br. J. Nutr. 66, 65 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. Blakeborough and M. I. Gurr,Br. J. Clin. Nutr. 55, 209 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    P. Van Dael, G. Vlaemynck, R. Van Renterghem, and H. Deelstra,Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 192, 422 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. Lönnerdal and E. Forsum,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41, 113 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    B. Lönnerdal, L. R. Woodhouse, and C. Glazier,J. Nutr. 117, 1385 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    G. Fransson and B. Lönnerdal,Ped. Res. 17, 912 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. Blakeborough, D. N. Salter, and M. I. Gurr,Biochem J. 209, 505 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. T. Martin, F. A. Jacobs, and J. G. Brushmiller,J Nutr. 114, 869 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Flynn,Adv Food Nutr Res. 36, 209 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    H. Singh, A, Flynn, and P. F. Fox,J. Dairy Res. 56, 235 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. Blakeborough and M. I. Gurr,Br. J. Clin. Nutr. 55, 209 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    P. Van Dael, L. H. Shen, R. Van Renterghem, and H. Deelstra,Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 195, 3 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Van Dael, L. H. Shen, R. Van Renterghem, and H. Deelstra,Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 196, 536 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    T. Hazell,Wld. Rev. Nutr. Diet. 46, 1 (1985).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. D. Miller,Adv. Food. Nutr. Res. 33, 103 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    R. R. Recker, A. Bammi, M. J. Barger-Lux, and R. P. Heaney,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 47, 93 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    B. R. Martin, C. M. Weaver, and D. L. Smith,FASEB J. 4, A775 (1990).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    C. Kunz and B. Lönnerdal,FASEB J. 4, A521 (1990).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. J. Steichen and R. C. Tsang,J Pediatr. 110, 687 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    L. H. Allen and M. C. Neville,Clin. Chem. 29, 858 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lihua Shen
    • 1
  • Harry Robberecht
    • 1
  • Peter Van Dael
    • 1
  • Hendrik Deelstra
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Food Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Antwerp (UIA)WilrijkBelgium

Personalised recommendations