Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 281–297 | Cite as

Effects of excess selenomethionine on selenium status indicators in pregnant long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

  • Wayne Chris Hawkes
  • Calvin C. Willhite
  • Kimberly A. Craig
  • Stanley T. Omaye
  • Douglas N. Cox
  • Wai Nang Choy
  • Andrew G. Hendrickx


Forty pregnant long-tailed macaques were treated daily for 30 d with 0, 25, 150 or 300 μg selenium as L-selenomethionine/kg body weight. Erythrocyte and plasma selenium and glutathione peroxidase specific activities, hair and fecal selenium, and urinary selenium excretion were increased by and were linearly related to L-selenomethionine dose. Hair selenium was most sensitive to L-selenomethionine dose, with an 84-fold increase in the 300 μg selenium/(kg-d) group relative to controls (r=0.917). Daily urinary selenium excretion (80-fold,r=0.958), plasma selenium (22-fold,r=0.885), erythrocyte selenium (24-fold,r=0.920), and fecal selenium (18-fold,r=0.911) also responded strongly to L-selenomethionine. Erythrocyte and plasma glutathione peroxidase specific activities increased 154% and 69% over controls, respectively. Toxicity was associated with erythrocyte selenium >2.3 μg/mL, plasma selenium >2.8 μg/mL, and hair selenium >27 μg/g. Plasma, erythrocyte, and hair selenium concentrations may be useful for monitoring and preventing the toxicity of L-selenomethionine administered to humans in cancer chemoprevention trials.

Index Entries

Selenomethionine selenium glutathione peroxidase Macaca fascicularis long-tailed macaque nonhuman primate selenium status assessment selenium toxicity, cancer chemoprevention 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. F. Combs, Jr. and S. B. Combs,The Role of Selenium in Nutrition, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1986.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. N. Vernie,Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 738, 203 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. J. Stampfer, G. A. Colditz, and W. C. Willet,Cancer Surveys,6, 623 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Chen and L. C. Clark,J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 5, 71 (1986).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. C. Willett and M. J. Stampfer,J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 5, 29 (1986).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. A. Swanson, B. H. Patterson, K. Helzlsouer, O. A. Levander, P. A. mcAdam, P. R. Taylor, C. Veilion, and L. A. Zech,FASEB J. 4, A372 (1990).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. D. Salbe and O. A. Levander,J. Nutr. 120, 200 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    O. A. Levander,Fed. Proc. 44, 2579 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Marshall,Science 22, 144 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. H. Heinz, D. J. Hoffman, A. J. Krynitsky, and D. M. G. Weller,Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 6, 423 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. A. Beilstein and P. D. Whanger,J. Nutr. 116, 1701 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Korhola, A. Vainio, and K. Edelmann,Ann. Clin. Res. 18, 65 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Yasumoto, T. Suzuki, and M. Yoshida,J. Agric. Food Chem. 36, 463 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. J. Cukierski, C. C. Willhite, B. L. Lasley, T. A. Hendrie, S. A. Book, D. N. Cox, and A. G. Hendrickx,Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 13, 26 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. F. Tarantal, C. C. Willhite, B. L. Lasley, C. J. Murphy, C. J. Miller, M. J. Cukierski, S. A. Book, and A. G. Hendrickx,Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 16, 147 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    W. C. Hawkes and K. A. Craig,Anal. Biochem. 186, 46 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. C. Hawkes and K. A. Craig,Laboratory Robotics and Automation,3, 13 (1991).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. H. Watkinson,Anal. Chem. 38, 92 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. D. Thomson, L. K. Ong, and M. F. Robinson,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41, 1015 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Neve, F. Vertongen, and P. Capel,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 48, 139 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. J. Cohen, M. E. Chovaniec, D. Mistretta, and S. S. Baker,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41, 735 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. J. Cohen, M. R. Brown, D. Hamilton, J. Lyons-Patterson, N. Avissar, and P. Liegey,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49, 132 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. I. Berlin and P. D. Berk, in:The Red Blood Cell, D. M. Surgenor, ed., Academic Press, New York, NY, (1975), pp. 957–1019.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. R. Robinson, M. F. Robinson, O. A. Levander, and C. D. Thomson,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41, 1023 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. A. Beilstein and P. D. Whanger,J. Inorg. Biochem. 33, 31 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    L. J. Anghileri and R. Marques,Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 111, 580 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. A. Butler and P. D. Whanger,FASEB J. 2, A1439 (1988).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. R. Millar, M. A. Gardiner, and A. D. Sheppard,N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 16, 115 (1973).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. C. Willhite, V. H. Ferm, and L. Zeise,Teratology 42, 359 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. D. Whanger and J. A. Butler,J. Nutr. 118, 846 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. A. Beilstein and P. D. Whanger,J. Inorg. Biochem. 29, 137 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. E. Paglia and W. N. Valentine,J. Lab. Clin. Med. 70, 158 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. L. Tappel, inMethods in Enzymology, vol. 52, part C, S. Fleischer and L. Packer, eds., Academic Press, New York, NY., 1978, pp. 506–513.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. L. Tappel, in:Selenium in Biology and Medicine, J. E. Spallholz, J. L. Martin, and H. E. Ganther, eds., Avi Publishing Co., Westport, CT, 1981, pp. 44–53.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Pierce and A. L. Tappel,Biochim. Biophys. Acta 523, 27 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    K. E. Hill, R. J. Burk, and J. M. Lane,J. Nutr. 117, 99 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    X. Luo, H. Wei, C. Yang, J. Xing, X. Liu, C. Qiao, Y. Feng, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Q. Wu, X. Liu, J. Guo, B. J. Stoecker, J. E. Spallholz, and S. P. Yang,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42, 439 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    G. Yang, L. Gu, R. Zhou, and S. Yin, in:Selenium in Biology and Medicine, A. Wendel, ed., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 1989, pp. 223–228.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    C. D. Thomson, H. M. Rea, V. M. Doesburg, and M. F. Robinson,Br. J. Nutr. 37, 457 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    G. Q. Yang, L. Z. Zhu, S. J. Liu, L. Z. Gu, P. C. Qian, J. H. Huang, and M. D. Lu, inSelenium in Biology and Medicine, part G. F. Combs, Jr., J. E. Spallholz, O. A. Levander, and J. E. Oldfield, eds., Van Norstrand, New York, NY, 1987, pp. 589–607.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    T. S. Davies,Lancet 2, 935 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    B. S. Liu and S. S. Li, in:Selenium in Biology and Medicine, part B, G. F. Combs, Jr., J. E. Spallholz, O. A. Levander, and J. E. Oldfield, eds., Van Norstrand, New York, NY, 1987, pp. 708–711.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Humana Press, Inc 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wayne Chris Hawkes
    • 1
  • Calvin C. Willhite
    • 2
  • Kimberly A. Craig
    • 3
  • Stanley T. Omaye
    • 5
  • Douglas N. Cox
    • 7
  • Wai Nang Choy
    • 2
  • Andrew G. Hendrickx
    • 9
  1. 1.Western Human Nutrition Research CenterUSDA-ARSPresidio of San Francisco
  2. 2.Department of Health Services, State of CaliforniaBerkeley
  3. 3.Western Human Nutrition Research CenterUSDA-ARSPresidio of San Francisco
  4. 4.Chiron CorporationEmeryville
  5. 5.Letterman Army Institute of ResearchPresidio of San Francisco
  6. 6.Department of NutritionUniversity of NevadaReno
  7. 7.California Public Health FoundationBerkeley
  8. 8.ENVIRON CorporationEmeryville
  9. 9.California Primate Research CenterUniversity of CaliforniaDavis

Personalised recommendations