Knowledge of daily boron (B) intakes will assist researchers in establishing B requirements and elucidating the metabolic role of B in humans. B concentrations in commonly consumed foods were utilized to approximate the B intake of selected US populations. Triplicate food samples were digested at low temperatures with 16M HNO3 and 30% H2O2, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP). Milk and dairy products, juices, and beverages were the largest contributors to dietary B. Total B content of average daily diets ranged from 548 μg for toddlers (2 yr old) to 883 μg for mature males (60–65 yr old), excluding tap water contributions. Toddlers consumed 3.7 times more B than mature males when adjusted for body weight (body wt) and consumed the diet with the highest boron density (1.8 μg/kJ or 0.43 μg/kcal). Adolescent females consumed a diet with the lowest B density (1.12 μg/kJ or 0.26 μg/kcal). Food B concentrations applied to diet records (1020 μg/d) and ICP analysis of the corresponding food composites (1170 μg/d) were comparable (p < 0.05). Current estimations of B in US diets are consistent with reports in the literature stating that normal adult daily B intakes are approx 1 mg.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
N. L. Kent and R. A. McCance, The absorption and excretion of ‘minor’ elements by man. I. Silver, gold, lithium, boron and vanadium,Biochem. J. 35, 837–844 (1941).
C. D. Hunt, J. L. Herbei, and F. H. Nielsen, Metabolic responses of postmenopausal women to supplemental dietary boron and aluminum during usual and low magnesium intake: boron, calcium, and magnesium absorption and retention and blood mineral concentrations,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65, 803–813 (1997).
F. H. Nielsen, L. M. Mullen, and S. K. Gallagher, Effect of boron depletion and repletion on blood indicators of calcium status in humans fed a magnesium-low diet,J. Trace Element Exp. Med. 3, 45–54 (1990).
NRC (National Research Council), Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC (1989).
J. A. T. Pennington, Revision of the Total Diet Study food list and diets,J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 82, 166–173 (1983).
S. L. Meacham, L. J. Taper, and S. L. Volpe, Effect of boron supplementation on blood and urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and urinary boron in athletic and sedentary women,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61, 341–345 (1995).
C. D. Hunt and T. R. Shuler, Open-vessel, wet-ash, low-temperature digestion of biological materials for inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy (ICAP) analysis of boron and other minerals,J. Micronutr. Anal. 6, 161–174 (1989).
D. L. Anderson, W. C. Cunningham, and T. R. Lindstrom, Concentrations and intakes of H, B, S, K, Na, Cl, and NaCl in foods,J. Food Comp. Anal. 7, 59–82 (1994).
A. Gormican, Inorganic elements in foods used in hospital menus,J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 56, 397–403 (1970).
C. D. Hunt, T. R. Shuler, and L. M. Mullen, Concentration of boron and other elements in human foods and personal care products,J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 91, 558–568 (1991).
G. V. Iyengar, W. B. Clarke, and R. G. Downing, Determination of boron and lithium in diverse biological matrices using neutron activation-mass spectrometry (NA-MS),Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 338, 562–566 (1990).
C. J. Rainey, L. A. Nyquist, R. E. Christensen, P. L. Strong, B. D. Culver, and J. R. Coughlin, Daily boron intake from the American diet based on consumption data from USDA, in Inorganic Borates: Chemistry, Human Exposure, and Health and Regulatory Guidelines, J. R. Coughlin, ed.,J. Trace. Element Exp. Med. 9, 137–151 (1996).
F. J. Murray, A human health risk assessment of boron (boric acid and borax) in drinking water,Reg. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 22, 221–230 (1995).
S. M. Darnton, Effects of boron supplementation on bone mineral density, blood, urinary calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and urinary boron in female athletes, PhD dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (1991).
J. R. Hunt, L. M. Mullen, and G. I. Lykken, Zinc retention from an experimental diet based on the U.S. F.D.A. Total Diet Study,Nutr. Res. 12, 1335–1344 (1992).
A. L. Sawaya, K. Tucher, R. Tsay, W. Willett, E. Saltzman, G. E. Dallai, et al., Evaluation of four methods for determining energy intake in young and older women: comparison with doubly labeled water measurements of total energy expenditure,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 63, 491–499 (1996).
M. I. Goran and E. T. Poehlman, Total energy expenditure and energy requirements in healthy elderly persons,Metabolism 41, 744–753 (1992).
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Northern Plains Area is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer, and all agency services are available without discrimination.
About this article
Cite this article
Meacham, S.L., Hunt, C.D. Dietary boron intakes of selected populations in the United States. Biol Trace Elem Res 66, 65–78 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02783127
- dietary intake
- total diet studies
- food composition
- boron concentrations