International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 785–802 | Cite as

Social communication among captive stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides)

  • Dario Maestripieri
Article

Abstract

I compared the frequency of occurrence, contextual usage, and meaning of some of the most prominent gestural signals in stump-tailed macaques. I recorded the occurrence of 15 visual and tactile behavior patterns in a multimale multifemale captive group of stump-tailed macaques with the behavior sampling method in 100 hr of observation and analyzed the data via factor analysis and analyis of variance. The hindquarter presentation was the most frequent gesture. It was displayed by subordinates to appease dominants even in the absence of impending risk of aggression. Bared-teeth, lip-smack, teeth-chatter, and present-arm are submissive signals as well, but they differ from the presentation and from one another in their contextual usage. Nonthrusting mount, hip-touch, hip-clasp, and genital manipulation are directed down the hierarchy and appear to reflect dominance, reassurance, protection, or bonding. Mock-bite is a ritualized aggressive behavior pattern, often used to resolve uncertain dominance relationships. Ventroventral embrace occurs as a female bonding pattern. Overall, most gestural signals in stump-tailed macaques relate to dominance and submission and, to a lesser extent, social bonding.

Key words

gestural communication social dynamics macaques Macaca arctoides 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, D. B., and Schoel, W. M. (1982). A statistical analysis of the social behavior of the male stumptail macaque(Macaca arctoides).Am. J. Primatol. 2: 249–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernstein, I. S. (1970). Some behavioral elements of the Cercopithecoidea. In Napier, J. H., and Napier, P. H. (eds.),Old World Monkeys. Evolution, Systematics and Behavior, New York, Academic Press, pp. 263–295.Google Scholar
  3. Bernstein, I. S. (1980). Activity patterns in a stumptail macaque group.Folia Primatol. 33: 20–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertrand, M. (1969).The Behavioral Repertoire of the Stumptail Macaque, Basel, Karger.Google Scholar
  5. Blurton-Jones, N. G., and Trollope, J. (1968). Social behaviour of stump-tailed macaques in captivity.Primates 9: 365–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burling, R. (1993). Primate calls, human language, and nonverbal communication.Curr. Anthropol. 34: 25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caldecott, J. O. (1986). Mating patterns, societies and ecography of macaques.Anim. Behav. 34: 208–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (1973). Visual and tactile communication inMacaca arctoides and its ontogenetic development.Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 38: 515–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (1974a). The ontogeny of communication in the stumptail macaque(Macaca arctoides).Contributions to Primatology, Vol. 2, Basel, Karger.Google Scholar
  10. Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (1974b). Male-female, female-female, and male-male sexual behavior in the stumptail monkey, with special attention to the female orgasm.Arch. Sex. Behav. 3: 95–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (1975). Heterosexual copulatory patterns in stumptail macaques(Macaca arctoides) and in other macaque species.Arch. Sex. Behav. 4: 199–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (1976). Homosexual behavior in a laboratory group of stumptail monkeys(Macaca arctoides): Forms, contexts, and possible social functions.Arch. Sex. Behav. 5: 511–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Waal, F. B. M. (1989).Peacemaking Among Primates, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  14. Demaria, C., and Thierry, B. (1989). Lack of effects of environmental changes on agonistic behaviour patterns in a stabilizing group of stumptailed macaques.Aggress. Behav. 15: 353–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Demaria, C., and Thierry, B. (1990). Formal biting in stumptailed macaques(Macaca arctoides).Am. J. Primatol. 20: 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Estrada, A., Estrada, R., and Ervin, F. (1977). Establishment of a free-ranging colony of stumptail macaques(Macaca arctoides). I. Social relations.Primates 18: 647–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Estrada, A., and Sandoval, J. (1977). Social relations in a free-ranging troop of stumptail monkeys(Macaca arctoides): Male-care behaviour. I.Primates 18: 793–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fooden, J. (1990). The bear macaque,Macaca arctoides: a systematic review.J. Hum. Evol. 19: 607–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hendy-Neely, H., and Rhine, R. J. (1977). Social development of stumptailed macaques(Macaca arctoides): Momentary touching and other interactions with adult males during the infants’ first 60 days of life.Primates 18: 589–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kramer, M., and Schmidhammer, J. (1992). The chi-squared statistic in ethology: Use and misuse.Anim. Behav. 44: 833–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maestripieri, D. (1994). Mother-infant relationships in three species of macaques(Macaca mulatto, M. nemestrina, M. arctoides). II. The social environment.Behaviour 131: 97–113.Google Scholar
  22. Maestripieri, D. (1996a). Gestural communication and its cognitive implications in pigtail macaques.Behaviour (in press).Google Scholar
  23. Maestripieri, D. (1996b). Primate cognition and the bared-teeth display: A re-evaluation of the concept of formal dominance.J. Comp. Psychol. (in press).Google Scholar
  24. Martin, P., and Bateson, P. (1986).Measuring Behaviour. An Introductory Guide, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  25. Moore, J. (1992). Dispersal, nepotism, and primate social behavior.Int. J. Primatol. 13: 361–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morris, D. (ed.) (1967).Primate Ethology, Weidenfield, London.Google Scholar
  27. Norusis, M. J. (1985).SPSS X Advanced Statistics Guide, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Shirek-Ellefson, J. (1972). Social communication in some Old World monkeys and gibbons. In Dolhinow, P. (ed.),Primate Patterns, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 297–311.Google Scholar
  29. Redican, W. K.(1975). Facial expressions in nonhuman primates. In Rosenblum, L. A. (ed.),Primate Behavior. Development in Field and Laboratory Research, Vol. 4, Academic Press, New York, pp. 103–194.Google Scholar
  30. Rhine, R. J., and Kronenwetter, C. (1972). Interaction patterns of two newly formed groups of stumptail macaques(Macaca arctoides).Primates 13: 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tomasello, M., and Call, J. (1996).Primate Cognition, Oxford University Press, Oxford (in press),Google Scholar
  32. Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1967). The facial displays of the Catarrhine monkeys and apes. In Morris, D. (ed.),Primate Ethology. Weidenfield, London, pp. 7–68.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dario Maestripieri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Yerkes Regional Primate Research CenterEmory UniversityAtlanta

Personalised recommendations