The unit-group of Pan paniscustends to form one large mixed party consisting of most of its members. Females usually stay in the party irrespective of their estrous state. They aggregate in the center of the party; and, older females stay in the most central part. Adult and adolescent sons of the old adult females stay in the central part more than males without mothers in the unit-group do. Females leave their natal unit-groups as older juveniles or in early adolescence and. settle in another unit-group after visiting several. Newly immigrated young females are eager to have social interactions with senior females to improve their social positions. Females become less eager to interact socially with other females when they have their own offspring. The strong bond between mother and son continues into his adulthood; and, females in old age become important members of the unit-group, both as the targets of association for younger females and as the mothers of highranking males. High social status of females seems related to their cohesive grouping tendency. The consistency of the multimale/multifemale party and the existence of prominent mother-offspring subunits are unique characteristics of P. paniscusamong the Pongidae. This social structure may provide a feasible model of the basic society from which human society evolved.
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Furuichi, T. Social interactions and the life history of femalePan paniscus in Wamba, Zaire. Int J Primatol 10, 173–197 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02735199
- Pan paniscus
- female life history
- grouping pattern
- social interaction
- intergroup transfer