Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 81–98 | Cite as

Monkeys with mirrors: Some questions for primate psychology

  • James R. Anderson
Review Article

Abstract

Monkeys do not appear to recognize themselves in mirrors but display social responses to the reflection. This article comprehensively reviews the literature concerning monkeys’ reactions to mirrors, describing the interest shown in reflections, the reinforcing effects of mirror-image stimulation, the social responses of the monkeys, their interpretation of objects reflected in a mirror, and their performance in tests of self-recognition. In all cases limitations of the methods employed restrict conclusions about the monkeys’ behavior. Detailed behavioral observations coupled with comparisons of the psychological properties of mirrors with those of other stimuli promise to reveal more useful information about cognitive mechanisms and abilities of monkeys and other primates.

Key words

primates mirrors self-recognition behavior 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akeley, D. J. (1928).“J. T. Jr.” The Biography of an African Monkey, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. R. (1981).Mirror Image Stimulation and Behavioral Development in Stumptail Macaques, Ph.D. thesis, University of Stirling, Stirling.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. R. (1983a). Mirror-image stimulation and short separations in stumptail monkeys.Anim. Learn. Behav. 11: 138–143.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. R. (1983b) Responses to mirror image stimulation and assessment of selfrecognition in mirror and peer-reared stumptail macaques.Q. J. Exp. Psychol. (in press).Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, J. R., and Chamove, A. S. (1984). Early social experience and responses to visual social stimuli in young monkeys.Current Psychological Research and Reviews. (in press).Google Scholar
  6. Benhar, E., Carlton, P. L., and Samuel, D. A. (1975). A search for mirror-image reinforcement and self-recognition in the baboon. In Kondo, S., Kawai, M., and Ehara, A. (eds.).Contemporary Primatology; Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of Primatology, Japan Science Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  7. Bertrand, M. (1969).The Behavioral Repertoire of the Stumptail Macaque, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  8. Bourlière, F., Hunkeler, C., and Bertrand, M. (1970). Ecology and behavior of Lowe’s guenon(Cercopithecus campbelli lowei) in the Ivory Coast. In Napier, J. R., and Napier, P. H. (eds.),Old World Monkeys: Evolution, Systematics, and Behavior, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Bowden, D. (1966). Primate behavioral research in the USSR. The Sukhumi Medico-Biological Station.Folia primatol. 4: 346–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, W. L., McDowell, A. A., and Robinson, E. M. (1965). Discrimination learning of mirrored cues by rhesus monkeys.J. genet. Psychol. 106: 123–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Buss, A. H. (1980).Self-Consciousness and Social Anxiety, W. H. Freeman, San Franciso.Google Scholar
  12. Chamove, A. S. (1979). Three social preference measures in PKU monkeys.J. Ment. Def. Res. 23: 265–273.Google Scholar
  13. Christen, A. (1974). Fortpflanzungsbiologie und Verhalten beiCebuella pygmaea undTamarin tamarin.Z. Tierpsychol., Beiheft 14: 1–78.Google Scholar
  14. Cole, J. (1963).Macaca nemestrina Studied in captivity.Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 10: 105–114.Google Scholar
  15. Desmond, A. (1979).The Ape’s Reflexion, Blond & Briggs, London.Google Scholar
  16. Dore, F., Lefebvre, L., and Ducharme, R. (1978). Threat display inBetta splendens: Effects of water condition and type of agonistic stimulation.Anim. Behav. 26: 738–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Duval, S., and Wicklund, R. A. (1972).A Theory of Objective Self-Awareness, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Epple, G. (1967). Comparative studies on sexual and social behavior of marmosets (Hapalidae).Folia primatol. 8: 37–65.Google Scholar
  19. Figler, M. H. (1972). The relation between eliciting stimulus strength and habituation of the threat display in male Siamese fighting fish,Betta splendens.Behaviour 42: 63–96.Google Scholar
  20. Foley, J. P., Jr. (1934). First year development of a rhesus monkey(Macaca mulatta) reared in isolation.J. genet. Psychol. 45: 39–105.Google Scholar
  21. Foley, J. P., Jr. (1935). Second year development of a rhesus monkey(Macaca mulatta) reared in isolation during the first eighteen months.J. genet. Psychol. 47: 73–97.Google Scholar
  22. Fyleman, R., and Wilson, E. M. D. (1936).Billy Monkey: A True Tale of a Capuchin Monkey, Nelson, London.Google Scholar
  23. Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1966). Mirror-image reinforcement in monkeys.Psychon. Sci. 5: 39–40.Google Scholar
  24. Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1968). Mirror-image stimulation.Psychol. Bull. 70: 782–793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1970). Chimpanzees: Self-recognition.Science 167: 86–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1971). Minds and mirrors.New Soc. 18: 975–977.Google Scholar
  27. Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1975). Towards an operational definition of self-awareness. In Tuttle, R. H. (eds.),Socioecology and Psychology of Primates, Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  28. Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1977a). Absence of self-recognition in a monkey(Macaca fascicularis) following prolonged exposure to a mirror.Dev. Psychobiol. 10: 281–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1977b). Self-recognition in primates: A comparative approach to the bidirectional properties of consciousness.Am. Psychol. 32: 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1979a). Self-recognition in chimpanzees and man: A developmental and comparative perspective. In Lewis, M., and Rosenblum, L. A. (eds.),The Child and Its Family, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1979b). Self-awareness in primates.Am. Sci. 64: 417–421.Google Scholar
  32. Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1980). Chimpanzees and self-awareness. In Roy, M. A. (eds.),Species Identity and Attachment, Garland STPM Press, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1982). Self-awareness and the emergence of mind in primates.Am. J. Primatol. 2: 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gallup, G. G., Jr., and McClure, M. K. (1971). Preference for mirror-image stimulation in differentially reared rhesus monkeys.J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 75: 403–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gallup, G. G., Jr., Wallnau, L. B., and Suarez, S. D. (1980). Failure to find self-recognition in mother-infant and infant-infant rhesus monkey pairs.Folia primatol. 33: 210–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Goosen, C. (1980).On Grooming in Old World Monkeys, TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  37. Hall, K. R. L. (1962). Behaviour of monkeys towards mirror images.Nature, Lond. 196: 1258–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hampton, J. K., Hampton, S. H., and Landwehr, B. T. (1966). Observations on a successful breeding colony of the marmosetOedipomidas oedipus.Folia primatol. 4: 265–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hamrick, C, Cogan, D., and Woolam, D. (1971). Social facilitation effects on runway and maze behavior in mice.Psychon, Sci. 25: 171–173.Google Scholar
  40. Hogan, J. A., and Roper, T. J. (1978). A comparison of the properties of different reinforcers. In Rosenblatt, J. S., Hinde, R. A., Beer, C., and Busnell, M.-C. (eds.),Advances in the Study of Behavior, Vol. 8, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Hughes, J. (1978).A Monkey about the Place. Souvenir Press, London.Google Scholar
  42. Kaplan, J. (1977). Some behavioral observations of surrogate-and mother-reared squirrel monkeys. In Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S., and Poirier, F. E., (eds.),Primate Bio-Social Development: Biological, Social, and Exological Determinants, Garland, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Kenney, M. D., Mason, W. A., and Hill, S. D. (1979). Effects of age, objects, and visual experience on affective responses of rhesus monkeys to strangers.Dev. Psychol. 15: 176–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Köhler, W. (1927).The Mentality of Apes, Kegan Paul, Trench & Trubner, London.Google Scholar
  45. Lane, H. (1976).The Wild Boy of A veyron. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  46. Ledbetter, D. H., and Basen, J. A. (1982). Failure to demonstrate self-recognition in gorillas.Am. J. Primatol. 2: 307–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lethmate, J. (1974). Selbst-Kenntnis bei Menschenaffen.Umschau 15: 486–487.Google Scholar
  48. Lethmate, J., and Dücker, G. (1973). Untersuchungen zum Selbsterkennen im Spiegel bei Orang-utans und einigen anderen Affenarten.Z. Tierpsychol. 33: 248–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lewis, M., and Brooks-Gunn, J. (1979).Social Cognition and the Acquisition of Self, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Lipp, H. P., and Hunsperger, R. W. (1978). Threat, attack and flight elicited by electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus of the marmoset monkeyCallithrix jacchus.Brain Behav. Evol. 15: 260–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. MacLean, P. D. (1964). Mirror display in the squirrel monkey,Saimiri sciureus.Science 146: 950–952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marton, M. L. (1974). Umbildung der GedÄchtnisfunktion als Folge der manipulatorischen TÄtigkeit auf der phylogenetischen Stufe der Affen.Studia Psychol. 16: 115–123.Google Scholar
  53. Mason, W. A. (1968). Early social deprivation in the nonhuman primate: Implications for human behavior. In Glass, D. C. (eds.),Biology and Behavior: Environmental Influences, Rockefeller University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Meddin, J. (1979). Chimpanzees, symbols, and the reflective self.Soc. Psychol. Quart. 42: 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Meliska, C. J., Meliska, J. A., and Peeke, H. V. S. (1980). Threat displays and combat aggression inBetta splendens following visual exposure to conspecifics and one-way mirrors.Behav. Neural Biol. 28: 473–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mitchell, G. (1972). Looking behavior in the rhesus monkey.J. Phenomenol. Psychol. 3: 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mitchell, G., and Caine, N. G. (1980). Macaques and other Old World primates. In Roy, M. A. (eds.),Species Identity and Attachment, Garland STPM Press, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Montevecchi, W. A., and Noel, P. E. (1978). Temporal effects of mirror-image stimulation on pecking and peeping in isolate, pair-and group-reared domestic chicks.Behav, Biol. 23: 531–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Plimpton, E. H., Swartz, K. B., and Rosenblum, L. A. (1981). Responses of juvenile bonnet macaques to social stimuli presented through color videotapes.Dev. Psychobiol. 14: 109–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Potegal, M. (1979). The reinforcing value of several types of aggressive behavior: A review.Aggr. Behav. 5: 353–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Richards, S. M. (1972).Tests for Behavioural Characteristics in Rhesus Monkeys, Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  62. Sackett, G. P. (1966). Monkeys reared in isolation with pictures as visual input: Evidence for an innate releasing mechanism.Science 154: 1468–1472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sackett, G. P., and Ruppenthal, G. C. (1973). Development of monkeys after varied experiences during infancy. In Barnett, S. A. (eds.),Ethology and Development, Heinemann Medical Books, London.Google Scholar
  64. Spencer-Booth, Y., and Hinde, R. A. (1969). Tests of behavioural characteristics for rhesus monkeys.Behaviour 33: 179–211.Google Scholar
  65. Stevenson-Hinde, J., Stillwell-Barnes, R., and Zunz, M. (1980). Individual differences in young rhesus monkeys: Consistency and change.Primates 21: 498–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Struhsaker, T. T. (1967). Behavior of vervet monkeys(Cercopithecus aethiops). Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 82.Google Scholar
  67. Suarez, S. D., and Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1981). Self-recognition in chimpanzees and orangutans, but not gorillas.J. hum. Evol. 10: 175–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Svendsen, G. E., and Armitage, K. B. (1974). Mirror-image stimulation applied to field behavioral studies.Ecology 54: 623–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Taylor, G. T. (1979). Reinforcement and intraspecific aggressive behavior.Behav. Neural Biol. 27: 1–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Thompson, T. I. (1963). Visual reinforcement in Siamese fighting fish.Science 141: 55–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tinklepaugh, O. L. (1928). An experimental study of representative factors in monkeys.J. comp. Psychol. 8: 197–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tolman, C. W. (1965). Emotional behaviour and social facilitation of feeding in domestic chicks.Anim. Behav. 13: 493–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Van Lawick-Goodall, J. (1971).In the Shadow of Man, Collins, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  74. Yerkes, R. M., and Yerkes, A. W. (1929).The Great Apes, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.Google Scholar
  75. Zazzo, R. (1979). Des enfants, des singes et des chiens devant le miroir.Rev. Psychol. Appl. 29: 235–246.Google Scholar
  76. Zumpe, D., and Michael, R. P. (1978). Biological determinants of sexual and non-sexual behaviour: The ethological viewpoint and some of its implications for humans. In Levi, L. (eds.),Society, Stress, and Disease, Vol. 3, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Anderson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyStirlingScotland, UK

Personalised recommendations