Evidence for the Earth gravitational shift by direct atomic-time-scale comparison

Подтверждение земного гравитационного сдвига с помощью прямого сравнения масштабов атомных времен

Summary

On the basis of the height difference between the CNR cosmic-ray laboratory at Plateau Rosa, 3500 m, and Turin, 250 m above s.l., a direct measurement of the terrestrial gravitational shift has been made by the comparison of the time scales of two cesium beam atomic frequency standards of the Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale «Galileo Ferraris». The principle of equivalence predicts the effect Δt/t=−ΔU/c 2=3.54·10−13, corresponding to the gain of the standard at mountain altitudes Δt/t=30.6 ns/d. The results Δt/t=(33.8±6.8) ns/d and Δt/t=(36.5±5.8) ns/d, derived with two independent operating criteria, have been obtained from 1584 h of actual measurement, with reference to an atomic time scale whose linearity was continuously and carefully tested. The results are discussed in terms of the current gravitational theories and in view of future experimental researches, which will be permitted by the advancements of the metrology of time.

Riassunto

Operando sul dislivello fra il laboratorio di fisica cosmica del CNR di Plateau Rosa, 3500 m, e Torino, 250 m s.m., si è ottenuta la misurazione diretta dello spostamento gravitazionale terrestre dal confronto delle scale temporali di due campioni atomici di frequenza al cesio dell'Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale «Galileo Ferraris». Il principio di equivalenza prevede l'effetto Δt/t=−ΔU/c 2=3.54·10−13, corrispondente all'anticipo Δt/t=30.6 ns/d del campione in quota. Da 1584 h di misura effettiva e con due metodi operativi indipendenti sono stati ottenuti i risultati Δt/t=(33.8±6.8) ns/d e Δt/t=(36.5±5.8) ns/d, con riferimento a una scala di tempo atomico continuamente controllata. Si discutono i risultati nel contesto delle attuali teorie della gravitazione e in vista di futuri avanzamenti della metrologia del tempo.

Резюме

На основе высотной разности между лабораториями космических лучей Национального Центра Исследований на Плато Роза, 3500 м, и в Турине, 250 м над уровнем моря, было проведено прямое измерение земного гравитационного сдвига, посредством сравнения временных шкал двух стандартов частот атомов цезия Национального Института Электроники «Галилео Феррарис». Принцип эквивалентности предсказывает величину Δt/t=−ΔU/c 2=3.54·10−13, соответствующую приращению стандарта на высотах Δt/t=30.6 ns/d. С помощью двух независимых критериев в течение 1584 ч измерений получены следующие результаты Δt/t=(33.8±6.8) ns/d и Δt/t=(36.5±5.8) ns/d. Полученные результаты обсуждаются в терминах существующих гравитационных теорий и в связи с будущими экспериментальными поисками, которые будут способствовать прогрессу метрологии времени.

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Briatore, L., Leschiutta, S. Evidence for the Earth gravitational shift by direct atomic-time-scale comparison. Nuov Cim B 37, 219–231 (1977). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02726320

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