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Journal of Biosciences

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 163–164 | Cite as

How “carrots and sticks” are encoded in the brain: Motivation, reward, addiction and fear

  • Mani Ramaswami
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Keywords

Cocaine Fear Conditioning Basal Forebrain Food Reward Dopaminergic Transmission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Breiter H C, Gollub R L, Weisskoff R M, Kennedy D N, Makris N, Berke J D, Goodman J M, Kantor H L, Gastfriend D R, Riorden J P, Mathew R T, Rosen B R and Hyman S E 1997 Acute effects of cocaine on human brain activity and emotion;Neuron 19 591–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fanselow M S 1998 Pavlovian conditioning, negative feedback, and blocking: mechanisms that regulate association formation;Neuron 20 625–627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Koob G F and Moal M L 1997 Drug abuse: hedonic homeostatic dysregulation;Science 278 52–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. McKernan M G and Shinnick-Gallagher P 1998 Fear conditioning induces a lasting potentiation of synaptic currentsin vitro;Nature (London) 390 604–607Google Scholar
  5. Rocha B A, Scearce-Levie K, Lucas J J, Hiroi N, Castanon N, Crabe J C, Nestler E and Hen R 1998 Increased vulnerability to cocaine in mice lacking the serotonin 1-B receptor;Nature (London) 393 175–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Rogan M T, Staubli U V and LeDoux J E 1998 Fear conditioning induces associative long-term potentiation in the amygdala;Nature (London) 390 604–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mani Ramaswami
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molelcular and Cellular Biology and ARL Division of NeurobiologUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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